In connection with the previous articles about the Guessing Quiz and Immigration, here are the answers and some interesting facts you need to know about Germans and their travels to America. First the Guessing Quiz:
1. What was the deciding factor that led to the US’s entry into the war in 1917?
Answer: The interception of the Zimmermann Telegram. German Defense Secretary Arthur Zimmermann sent a telegram to the Mexican government promising them the return of lands lost to the US as a result of the wars between 1838 and 1845. British intelligence officials intercepted it enroute and informed President Woodrow Wilson about it. Wilson, already fed up with the Germans for sinking the Lusitania two years earlier, formally declared war against Germany on 6th April, 1917, thus breaking his promise to keep the Americans out of war as he stated in his 1916 Presidential Elections campaign.
Fact-finder: Which states in the US were once part of Mexico but were taken away by the Americans?
Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California, Oregon, Washington, Colorado, Oklahoma, and Nevada
2. German immigrants in America were treated especially badly by the Americans during the war. How were they discriminated?
Eliminating German from the school curriculum
Renaming the Hamburger Liberty Steak
Renaming Sauerkraut Liberty Cabbage
Banning German literature
Banning German-speaking newspapers
True or False:
Germany was the last country to surrender to the Entente (the US, England and France) on the 11th minute of the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month, 1919. False: 11 November, 1918 at 11:11am
Armistice Day marked the end of World War I. True
Veteran’s Day originated from the above-mentioned day and has been celebrated in the US ever since. Yes and no. Veteran’s Day originated from this holiday but it was observed officially beginning in 1954
America was involved in the treaty to punish the Austro-Hungarians and Germans (losers of the war) through annexation of certain regions to the Entente. False. The German Empire was the sole responsible country that had to pay reparations and therefore lost portions of the country, including the Ruhr area, lands belonging to Poland, lands in the Flensburg and Sonderburg area that went to Denmark, and Basel and Strassbourg, which went to France, plus all the lands they occupied in western Africa.
Woodrow Wilson was heavily involved in the negotiations regarding the Versailles Treaty. How did he do that? Choose two of them.
He worked on a reparation plan for Germany
He proposed the League of Nations
He created the 14-Point Plan
He agreed to the proposals laid out by France and England to force Germany to cede (give up) portions of its territory
And now the interesting facts about German-named villages, some of which have been or will be mentioned in the Files:
Over 200 towns in the US still carry a German name today. Here they are and where they can be found
Berlin (East coast and New England states) Lubeck (Maine)
Hamburg (Midwest, and eastern part of the country) Kiel (Wisconsin)
Cologne (Midwest, including Minnesota) Ulm (Minnesota)
Munich (Minnesota) Luxemburg (Midwest)
Trier (Minnesota) Rhinelander (Wisconsin)
Frankfurt (Illinois and Kentucky) Wausau (Wisconsin)
Jena (Louisiana) Altona (Iowa, Ohio and PA)
Weimar (Texas) Brunswick (Georgia)
Dresden (Ohio) Bremen (Georgia)
Hanover (Midwest and eastern US) Wolfsburg (PA)
Schleswig (Iowa) Munster (Indiana)
Holstein (Iowa) Karlsruhe (North Dakota)
Bergen (Minnesota and eastern parts of US) Leipzig (North Dakota)
Flensburg (Minnesota) New Germany (Minnesota)
Nuremberg (Pennsylvania (PA)) Saxonburg (PA)
Minden (Ohio, Missouri and other states)
These are only a few examples of villages and towns that are known to exist in the US. They do not count those that have yet to be identified, as well as those that had once existed but have long since disappeared. If you know of other villages that carry the German name, please mention them here or on the Files’ facebook page.
Here’s a question for all teachers in the German school system and social studies/ history teachers in the American schools: How much do you teach your pupils about the history of immigrants- in particular, German immigrants? How do you approach this topic in terms of teaching method, focusing on a time period in history as well as garnering interest in the topic? And lastly, how much information do/can you provide to your group?
As you recalled a couple articles ago, I presented you with some questions about this particular topic for you to answer, to challenge yourself and learn a couple new items that you have never heard about before. But this article is about German immigration in general and how important it is that this topic is integrated into the learning curriculum.
Many years ago, I visited Ellis Island, during my 1.5 week stay in New York City, to learn more about this topic and how Germans represented one of the majorities of the population that moved to the new world. Part of this had to do with the fact that my mother’s family is primarily German, originating from Schleswig-Holstein (and in particular, Stein near Kiel, according to genealogy research). Also important was the fact that prior to my trip, I had discovered, in my parents’ garage, a trunk and on it, the maiden name of my mom’s ancestors that had immigrated to the United States in 1898 and eventually settled down on a farm south of Ellsworth, at the Minnesota-Iowa border. This sparked my interest in knowing more about how Germans immigrated to the US, the reasons behind their strive towards something new and how they survived over there (and are still prospering today).
The immigration wave of the Germans started in the 1840s before the Great Revolution of 1848. At that time, much of Europe, which featured the Habsburgs (The Austro-Hungarian Empire), Prussia, Russia and France had their own set of oligarchs who favored the church and the powerful over the common people. With violent clashes over food and poverty, plus the strive to put an end to this type of rule in favor of democracy, many of the immigrants boarded ships bound for the States and after several stops along the way, settled down in regions in today’s Rust Belt (the former steel regions extending from Illinois to Pennsylvania), as well as parts of the Midwest, including Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa and North Dakota. Much of their traditions, including their food, such as the hamburger and sauerkraut, the German language and its usage in literature and books, and even the villages were named after those from Prussia and Habsburg. Over 400 villages and towns were created with German city names, like Frankfort, Hamburg, Hannover, Berlin, and the like. Even some of the smaller towns in Germany had their names incorporated in the US, such as Flensburg, Schleswig, Lubeck, Kiel, Weimar, Jena and Trier. There was even the city of Bismarck, the capital of North Dakota that was named after Otto von Bismarck, the founding father of Germany, which was established in 1871. German culture prospered until World War I when President Wilson declared war on Germany in 1917 after a telegram was intercepted promising Mexico portions of Texas, Arizona, New Mexico and California if it entered World War I against the US. For a period of three years, German culture was suppressed in a way that all traditions and even the usage of the language was prohibited. Literary works by Schiller and Goethe were banned. The hamburger was renamed Liberty Steak; the sauerkraut, Liberty Cabbage. The Germans were perceived as evil in the eyes of many other immigrants, including the Italians, Irishmen and Russians, and conflicts broke out as a result.
After the war was over and the Versailles Treaty was signed, immigration to the US was limited because of the Red Scare- the Communist movement that had plagued Europe and parts of the US since the Bolshevist Revolution of 1917. Germans tried to escape the misery their country was facing, first through the hyperinflation during the Weimar Republic and later with the rise of Adolph Hitler but were faced with limitations both internally as well as externally. It would not be until after the second World War when the gates were reopened wide and many who wanted to leave and had the resources did.
Today, traces of German culture can be found in the US through foreign languages in public schools, the foods which have become somewhat commercialized, like the beer and hamburger, and the communities that still bear the German names. Some festivals can still be found in those communities, like the Oktoberfest in New Ulm in Minnesota. Yet do we talk much about immigration in the schools? Sadly, I have to say no.
We seem to have drifted away from topics like this one because of the strive to streamline education at the expense of the most important ones, like history, culture and politics. Foreign languages have also taken a hit, as schools in the United States are focusing solely on Spanish while leaving the rest behind- something that is angering the neighbors to the north, Canada, where French is the official second language behind English. While business and technology are two important elements needed to get a well-paying job, other aspects, like the ones mentioned, are just as important for they provide students with an insight to other countries and their culture and history. Looking at it from a historian’s point of view, taking these humanity aspects seriously can enable the student to learn about him/herself and the surroundings and identify him/herself based on their own family history and how it contributed to the history of their countries.
Yet even when we discuss about humanities, like history and culture, in schools, we seem to have left out the meat of the topics for discussion. Reason for that are the limitations with regards to the subjects to be taught for certain grades- both in Germany, as well as in the USA. The time constraints regarding how and when to teach these subjects have forced many teachers to prioritize which subjects are important and which ones should be left out. Unfortunately, those that are left out are usually not taught unless in academia, if at all.
Immigration is one of those aspects that should be brought to the table at an early stage. There are many reasons for this argument, but I will mention only two, as they are the most important in my opinion. The first is immigration is like a bridge, connecting one’s old home with their new home. People who immigrated to other countries collected many impressions and stories to share with their relatives and friends back home. Many of these impressions and stories deal with comparisons between their new home and their old one, as well as suggestions as to how to improve their old region. While some of the immigrants returned to their old homelands, some remained in their new homelands forever, creating families of their own. In the case of German immigration, it is typical to find many German families settling in clusters in either a community or region. An example of which can be found in an article written in 2010 about New Trier in Minnesota, which you can click here.
The second argument behind teaching immigration in school is because it played a key role in the development of the countries the immigrants originated from and the countries where they eventually settled down. In the case of Germany, the emigration of Germans from Prussia and Habsburg resulted in the need to reform the countries respectively, unfortunately through the usage of violence, as was seen in the Revolution of 1848. Eventually the situation stabilized with the creation of a German state in 1871, which provided the solidarity and sound structure of a democratic state many people had envisioned two decades before but were realized by Bismarck. In the case of German immigrants in the US, their previous experiences before immigrating over, combined with their innovation and thinking has helped shape the US as it is today. It is not hard to find Germans in America, who had made a difference, whether it was Henry Kissinger’s role as Secretary of State under Nixon and how the US scaled back on its mission of containment and opened their doors to relations with Russia and China, or John Roebling and his design of the wire suspension bridge, a few examples of which still exist today. Kissinger originated from Fürth (north of Nuremberg) in Bavaria, while Roebling emigrated to Pennsylvania from Mühlhausen in Thuringia and established the town of Saxonburg.
How the topic should be taught in the classroom is fully up to the teacher, but some of the small aspects mentioned here will help students know about the importance of immigration, even more so when it is discussed in the classroom in schools in Europe, and in this case, Germany. This is where the article ends with a small anecdote: Ignore the smallest details and you will ignore the most relevant. Give them something small to think about and it will make a big difference as far as learning is concerned.
And now, some interesting Flensburg Files’ Fast Facts, which you will find in the next article…..