State Reforms: How Many German States Should We Have?

Priwall Beach, located west of the former East and West German border at Travemunde. Photo taken in October 2013

Since 3rd October, 1990, the Federal Republic of Germany has been in existence, featuring the states of the former West Germany and those of East Germany (or better known as the German Democratic Republic). This includes the largest state, Bavaria, which is as big as the entire state of Iowa but is also the richest of the 16 states. We also have Baden-Wurttemberg and Hesse, two of the most populous states and known as the hot spots for jobs. Then we have the former East German States of Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia, Brandenburg, and Mecklenburg-Pommerania. And lastly, we have the city-states of Hamburg, Bremen and Berlin, the third of which is the nation’s capital. Then we have Saarland, one of the poorest states in the union and the source of the recent proposal brought forth by Minister Annagret Kramp-Karrenbauer. Her proposal: to reduce the number of states to six to eight instead of the original 16 states. The source: The Solidarity Pact, which runs out in less than five years.

To summarize: the Solidarity Pact, signed into law in 1990, required that the rich states, namely in case, Bavaria, Hesse and Baden-Wurttemberg to provide financial support to the other German states, to ensure that the states can be provided with enough capital to survive and avoid a financial disaster, similar to what we saw with the Great Crisis six years ago in the US and the EU. Yet Hesse and Bavaria do not want to carry the burden of these states anymore and with Saarland having the highest debt of any state in Germany, it is not surprising that Kramp-Karrenbauer is proposing such measures, one that is deemed radical and absurd among conservatives, especially in Bavaria, but given the trend in the European Union with states giving up more of their autonomy for a rather transparent one, it is not a surprise. This is especially given the attempts of states to cooperate together to consolidate their resources.

Let’s look at the former East Germany, for example. Since 2004, consolidation in the private sector as well as cooperation within public sector has been under development. This includes the merger of the health care insurance provider AOK in Thuringia, Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt, as well as cooperation and consolidation attempts among academic institutions at the universities in these three states. Furthermore, cooperation between Berlin and the state of Brandenburg in the private and public sectors have resulted in ideas and ways to integrate the capital into Brandenburg. Even a referendum was put up to a vote, which was rejected by Berliners and Brandenburgers alike.  In both examples, it is clear that because of the substantial demographic changes that have been witnessed since German Reunification in 1990, combined with poor job market possibilities that the long-term goal is to consolidate the states into one entity. That means Berlin would belong to Brandenburg and thus lose its city-state status, yet it would still be the national and state capital, a double-task that is not welcomed by many in both areas. As for the other states, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia would become Mitteldeutschland, with either Leipzig or Dresden being the capital and the other “former” state capitals becoming the seats of the districts. This concept is also not welcomed by many in these regions because of the potential to lose thousands of jobs in the consolidation process, combined with the closing of several institutions in the public sector. Attempts have already been tried with the university system in these three states, which were met with protests in the tens of thousands.

But the problems do not lie just in the Berlin-Brandenburg area, let alone the Mitteldeutschland area. The attractiveness of the states of Bavaria, Baden-Wurrtemberg and Hesse has resulted in a shift in population and businesses to these regions from areas in northern and eastern Germany, thus causing a strain in the social resources available in both areas. Northern states are battling high unemployment and social problems, whereas southern states are struggling to keep up the demand for housing.  While the Solidarity Pact has had its advantages, especially in the eastern part of Germany, where cities like Halle (Saale), Leipzig, Dresden, Erfurt and Berlin have undergone a major transformation from becoming run-down Communist cities to modern cities with historic nostalgia (reliving the days before Hitler took power and brought Germany to a blazing inferno known as World War II), there is still work to be done in terms of dealing with problems of unemployment, influx of immigration and the struggles to accommodate people, attracting jobs for all and improving education standards in school as well as in the university. The solidarity pact was a good project, but with states on both sides of the former Cold War border struggling to relieve the burden of debt and social problems, Kramp-Karrenbauer’s plan just might be that remedy Germany really needs. With less autonomy because of its interwoven policies of the European Union, there is really no need for all 16 states to function individually, receiving money from the rich states in order to survive.

This leads to the question of how to consolidate the German states. As it would be absurd to give up its city-state status, Berlin should remain an individual entity, receiving its funding from all the German states, but being ruled by the federal government- not the city government itself. It has been done in Washington, DC, as well as Monaco and Singapore. Losing its city-state status would be as preposterous as Washington becoming part of either Maryland or Virginia. James Madison and his forefathers would rise from their graves and make sure that proposal would never happen. So, as Germans would say it: “Finger weg vom Berlin!” As for Hamburg and Bremen, their financial and social woes have put a strain on their resources in general. Hence a merger with another German state would be both inevitable and beneficial.

But how to consolidate the other states is very difficult because the financial resources lie in the south and west of Germany. Henceforth it is impossible to anchor the rich states with the poor ones, with the possible exceptions of Bavaria merging with Saxony and Thuringia, Hesse merging with North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony and Baden Wurttemberg merging with Saarland and Rhineland Palatinate.  That would still leave the problem with Schleswig-Holstein, the three German city-states, and the remaining states that had once been part of East Germany because no financial beneficiaries would be found to govern the region. Therefore anchoring the rich with the poor is out of the question.  Also out of the question would be the old historic borders, where we have one large state of Saxony (instead of Upper, Lower and Anhalt Saxony), Thuringia becomes part of Bavaria, North Rhine-Westphalia takes over Rhineland Palatinate and Saarland, and Baden Wurrtemberg takes Hesse. Financially, the equilibrium would point clearly to the fourth region proposed here, thus putting the others at a mere disadvantage.  Ideally would be to combine geography and finances so that the equilibrium is firmly established and everyone would benefit from it. That means, instead of having 16 states, one could see three giant German states and Berlin having its own district.  While this proposal would be even more radical than that of Kramp-Karrenbauer’s, given the current situation in Germany, this alignment may be inevitable as financial and domestic problems as a result of lack of resources come to a head in 20 years at the most.

Here’s one of the proposal that should be considered:

Süddeutschland: Consisting of Bavaria, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia and Brandenburg. Capital would have to be in the central part of the new state, such as Erfurt, Leipzig or Nuremberg. Munich would have its own city-state status.

Norddeutschland: Consisting of Hesse, Lower Saxony, Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Pommerania, Hamburg and Bremen. Capital should be located in Hamburg, Hannover or Lübeck. Frankfurt would keep its financial headquarters in tact.

Westdeutschland: Consisting of Baden-Wurttemberg the states along the Rhine, including Saarland. Capital would be in Cologne. Stuttgart would be one of the district capitals along with Mannheim/Ludwigshafen, Freiburg im Breisgau, Coblence and Saarbrücken.

One can go with Kramp-Karrenbauer’s proposal of 6-8 states, but it should be noted that if two states consolidate, one should be the stronger one supporting the weaker one(s) but as long as the resources are pooled and the people will benefit from the merger. The last option would be to abolish all 16 states and have one Germany which has control over the entire country. This may be too communistic for the taste of many people, and some people may compare this to the period of the Third Reich. But with Germany being more and more part of the European Union, that option may also be brought onto the table in German Parliament.

But to sum up, the idea of having less German states is the most viable option in order for the German states to remain healthy. Kramp-Karrenbauer’s idea may sound absurd, but it may become inevitable as Germany becomes more integrated into the EU, which may be more of a blessing than a curse. The question is how to redraw the bounderies. What do you think? Should Germany be reduced in half? Perhaps in three giant states? How would you redraw the boundaries of the Bundesrepublik? Share your thoughts here as well as in the Files’ facebook pages and help Kramp-Karrenbauer push her agenda to the politicians in Berlin keeping in mind the risks and benefits the proposals may bring.

Flensburg Files News Flyer- 17 September 2011

Some wild and unexpected events have occurred in the past couple days will raise your eyebrows as the Flensburg Files presents you with its batch of News Flyers. While some are not surprising as the events have been plastered on the international level (but in short blips), others-especially in Thuringia and Schleswig-Holstein reveal examples of what is yet to come on a larger scale. So without further ado…..

Danish Parliamentary Building in Copenhagen- photo taken in August 2011

Denmark goes left and has first female prime minister
After 10 years of conservative rule under Lars Rasmussen, the Danish population on Thursday went to the polls and elected the Social Democrats back into power. And with that a first in Danish history- a female prime minister by the name of Helle Thorning-Schmidt will be appointed to lead the country.  Despite a razor-thin margin of victory, the center-left party will gain 89 seats in parliament and construct a coalition with the Social Liberal Party, in light of Rasmussen’s concession to defeat and resulting resignation (which he submitted to Queen Margaret the following day).  Rasmussen’s leadership during his ten years included attempts of putting a cap on immigration in the country. Yet he was a target of many controversies including implementing stricter border controls with neighboring Germany and Sweden, prompting the governments to protest the country’s policies and the European Union to threaten the country with sanctions. That combined with the increased unemployment and its first deficit in response to the economic crisis played a considerable role in the population’s decision for a change, which they hope to achieve with the 44-year old social democrat. Her plans will include easing border controls, which will breathe a sigh of relief for people living in the border towns of Malmø and Flensburg, which not only have large pockets of Danish living there, but rely on Denmark for commerce and trade.




Erfurt Cathedral: Site of the Holy Mass on 24 September- Photo taken in March 2011

Pope Benedikt XVI to visit Germany
Stores are offering deals in connection with his visit, security is being beefed up in many places and people in town are talking about it. Pope Benedikt XVI will tour Germany next weekend, and the country is opening its arms to greet the former German bishop who once was known as  Joesph Ratzinger. The three day visit will include stops in the capital of Berlin, followed by Erfurt and in the end Freiburg im Breisgau. In Berlin, he will meet with Chancellor Angela Merkel and President Christian Wulff, which will be followed by mass at the Olympic Stadium. After the visit, he spends two days in Thuringia, which includes the visit to St. Marien Church and the Erfurter Dom Cathedral- both in Erfurt and a vesper in Etzelbach, located southwest of the Thuringian capital. His final stop in Lahr and Freiburg in Baden-Wurttemberg will include meeting former Chancellor Helmut Kohl and the judges of the federal supreme court of Karlsruhe  and will feature a youth vigil on the evening of the 25th before his trip back to Rome.  The Flensburg Files will feature highlights of the visit which will take place from 22-25 September. Stay tuned.
Thuringian Airports in Trouble- Airlines pull out.
Despite using the airport as a platform for Pope Benedict XVI’s visit, the Erfurt Airport is finding itself in serious trouble, as Cirrus Airline announced that beginning in March 2012, there will be no more service to Munich. Earlier this year, AirBerlin, which had provided services to Berlin and Nuremberg decided to pull out for the aforementioned reasons. The problems however go beyond the airport, which has been serving the Thuringian capital since 1992. In Altenburg, located 1.5 hours south of Leipzig and only 30 minutes east of nearby Gera in eastern Thuringia, its airport lost its only state connection to the UK, when Ryanair this past March cut its services to London-Stanstedt.  The problems with the two airports are twofold. First, both airports have problems attracting passengers because of its proximity to its nearest competitors, Nuremberg, Magdeburg and Leipzig-Halle. Despite modernizing its airport in 1994, Erfurt has yet to reach its maximum capacity as only an average of 500,000 passengers visit the airport each year.  The airport in Altenburg, which once was a military base serving the former East Germany, was a main attraction for tourists coming from the UK and points north and west thanks to Ryanair. Secondly (which is not a surprise to many), the state is reigning in on subsidies for both airports as it recently passed its austerity bill for the next two years, which would trim millions in state aid, across the board.  This was one of the main reasons why Cirrus is pulling the plug on its services between Erfurt and Munich. With major airlines pulling out, Thuringia is finding itself in a very difficult situation attracting passengers to to area and may have to rely on the private sector to keep the airports running if it ever wants to stay competitive with its aforementioned counterparts, let alone the railway companies also  serving passengers in the state- mainly Die Bahn . Apart from Leipzig-Halle, Magdeburg and Nuremberg, which are by train 1, 2, and 4 hours from Erfurt respectively, with international flights no longer available in Thuringia, one will have to travel to either Frankfurt/Main or Berlin (Tegel), each located 3 hours by train. The one with the most to lose is Altenburg because of its location to Leipzig. While it could still serve local services to some of the nearest cities in the eastern part of the country, it may not be able to compete with its counterpart from Erfurt, and unless other airlines offer services to this small airport, one could see the facility fold in the next months or years.  It may take a year to a year and a half to find out how the austerity package combined with the recent pull-outs will have an impact on not only the two airports but Thuringia in general, and that will take more than Pope Benedikt XVI’s visit to Erfurt to resuscitate the region.

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Museumberg on the hill on Flensburg's west side: Possible candidate for cuts- photo taken in April 2011

Flensburg’s Cultural Scene Under the Knife
The city of Flensburg prides itself not only on its multicultural diversity (partly because of the Danish minority living there) but also its fine arts, as it has two libraries, two orchestras, the state theater, and many others. Thanks to the austerity package passed by the state parliament in nearby Kiel, which would provide savings of up to 6 million Euros, cuts and mergers are now foremost on the minds of many Flensburgers, as the cultural scene will receive less funding from the state.  Examples of how cuts will affect the cultural scene include: merging the city library with the Danish library, having only one orchestra (both have had 231 events attracting over 34,000 visitors this year) and cutting fine arts programs, whose contracts run out in 2012. While no plans have been etched in stone, there have been protests against such measures and it is unknown how these cuts will affect the city in general. But represents a classic example of what is being seen throughout all of Germany, as the federal and state governments are tightening their belts for leaner times ahead.