The next Genre of the Week is also a tribute to a man whose life as well as the lives of East and West Germans alike and those of Europe forever. Günter Schabowski was a long-time journalist, who was the chief editor the East German newspaper Neues Deutschland (New Germany) and later co-founder of the weekly newspaper, Heimat Nachrichten, based in Rotenberg/Fulda. Schabowski, who died on 1 November, 2015 after a long illness in a nursing home in Berlin, was a member of the Socialist Party SED from 1952 until its dissolution as part of the German Reunification process in 1990, of which he was member of the Volkskammer from 1981 until its end, and he was the governmental spokesperson for the East German Politbüro after the removal of SED leader and dictator, Erich Honecker in October, 1989. Once feared by many, by the likes of Christa Wolf (who was a writer and critic), Schabowski’s rounded character was revealed when he and members of the Politbüro executed the putsch to remove Honecker and replace him with Egon Krenz. However, his peak of fame came with this press conference on the eve of the Fall of the Wall in 1989:
The announcement of the opening of the Berlin Wall and the borders separating East and West Germany led to many East Germans to flock to the borders and many West Germans to embrace them.
And the rest was history.
But how about looking at it from the point of view of the border guards who had patrolled the Wall and the borders prior to November 9th, 1989? Maybe a bit of satire to go along with that?
This is where this film comes in: Bornholmer Strasse, a German film produced last year in commemoration of the event that is going on 26 years. The plot of the story is the border patrolmen guarding the border crossing at Bornholmer Strasse, at the site of the Bösebrücke, separating East and West Berlin, whose lives had been anything but spectacular until the events culminating to November 9th, where thousands of people stormed the crossings after hearing of Schabowski’s announcement of the opening of the borders. After much resistance because of misunderstandings between them, the media, and the SED, the patrolmen gave the green light, thus marking the beginning of the end of their lives, which was depicted at the beginning of the film, and whose display can be found at the GDR Museum in Berlin on Karl-Liebknecht Strasse 1. Here’s a trailer to the film:
The one caveat in this film was the fact that it was filmed at the Swinemünde Bridge near the train station Berlin Gesundbrunnen instead of at the actual site, but part of that has to do with the memorials that had been in place and the increase in traffic since the border’s opening. For more on the crossings, check out the Bridgehunter’s Chronicles’ guide to the crossings along the former Berlin Wall, here.
The producers of the film did a great job of keeping to the realities of the events, for the film depicts the confusion that not only the members of the SED had, but also the border guards and the people lining up just to see the other side of Berlin. It showed that once Honecker had been removed, it was a matter of time before the calls for democracy and the Wall to come down were heeded.
It is unknown whether Schabowski’s announcement to the media that the borders were going to open was accidental or intentional. But given his later renouncement of the SED and admittance of guilt of his involvement in the prevention of people from fleeing to the West (the latter resulted in a lighter sentence of only a year in prison), it seemed that he too realized that the changes were going to come eventually, either peacefully or by force. Already Mikhail Gorbachev allowed the countries in the eastern block to go their own way and announced that the Soviets were not going to be involved. Poland and Hungary had removed their dictators and opened their borders to the West. Realizing that Honecker was becoming an obstructionist who lived in his shell outside reality, Schabowski and others removed him from power peacefully. He eventually left Germany for Chile, where he died in 1994. The pressure was growing on Schabowski to open the gates. It was just a matter of time before he pulled the trigger- and this willfully.
Despite him being one of the worst politicians of the SED, he made good on his promise to unite East and West, even if the announcement was misunderstood as many scholars have mentioned. Sometimes when there is nothing left, the only solution is make the move and go on with life, leaving the past behind for a greener future. Because of him, we have a united Germany, and a united Europe. And looking at it from an East German’s perspective, we say Thanks! Looking at it from an author’s point of view, being an outsider from rural Minnesota, we say this: normally, bad guys should not be getting tributes like this, unless their merits warranted it. Schindler and Schabowski right now are probably sharing their experiences and embracing each other for their actions in saving lives of thousands in the face of repressive regimes even as this tribute and genre is being posted. And here I say, Vielen Dank und Gott segnet Sie.
After a brief hiatus, the Files takes you back to the Quiz series on the 16 German States and to the next candidate: the state of Brandenburg. Located in the eastern part of Germany, where Potsdam and Berlin are located, Brandenburg is perhaps one of the greenest states in Germany, joining the ranks of Mecklenburg Pommerania, Hesse, Thuringia and Saxony. This is in part because of the combination of forests, natural landscapes and wildlife that cover about half the state, mostly in the northern and western parts. The state also has the largest mass of water in the country, with over 33,000 kilometers of river and canals plus 3000 bodies of water, including 860 lakes. Both account for almost a fourth of the number of lakes found in Minnesota, the author’s homestate, where 11,800 lakes and over 111,000 km of rivers and streams exist. Yet while Minnesota can pride itself with its Winter Palace, the state of Brandenburg can also pride itself with its share of palaces and churches . Yet there is more to the state than just that, especially as it is the main attraction of this year’s German Garden and Horticulture Show (short: BUGA). For those wanting to visit Brandenburg for that purpose or for a vacation, perhaps a small Guessing Quiz will both test your knowledge of the state as of now, but also get you more interested and acquainted with the state. Without further ado, here is the challenge for you to take:
1. Which city is the capital of Brandenburg?
a. Potsdam b. Burg c. Brandenburg/Havel d. Neubrandenburg e. Frankfurt
2. Rank the following cities from most populated to least populated.
Bernau Rathenow Prenzlau Neuruppin Frankfurt Cottbus Werder Senftenberg Brandenburg/Havel Eberswald Falkensee Potsdam Görlitz Oranienburg Schwedt
3. Apart from German, which language is also spoken in Brandenburg? (Hint: Cottbus is known as Chosébuz; Lausitz means Luzyca)
a. Czech b. Polish c. Hungarian d. Danish e. Sorbian f. Slovakian
4. Which states border Brandenburg? Mark all that apply.
Lower Saxony Mecklenburg-Pommerania Thuringia Saxony Hesse Saxony-Anhalt Schleswig-Holstein Berlin Hamburg
5. How many districts and independent cities exist in Brandenburg?
6. Which rivers are NOT found in Brandenburg? Mark all that apply.
Elbe Elster Spree Havel Saale Ucker Trave Oder Neisse
7. Before 1947, the state of Brandenburg was once known as the Margraviate, going by the name of ___________ Brandenburg.
a. Marge b. Jim c. Marcus d. Ulla e. Mark f. Maik g. Mork h. Paul
8. In reference to this Margraviate, the kingdom goes as far back as which century?
a. 10th b. 12th c. 16th d. 18th e. 19th
9. Berlin is part of the state of Brandenburg. True or False?
10. A German women’s soccer team is the only team from Brandenburg that is in the premier league of a sport. True or False?
11. The origin of Frankfurt is Vrankenforde and applies to this city on the Oder River as well as the city on the River Main in Hesse. True or false?
12. Jim Brandenburg, a world-renowned nature photographer from Minnesota, once visited and photographed the flora and fauna in the state of Brandenburg. True or false?
13. The German motion picture studios, where most of the films are made, can be found in Brandenburg. True or false? Name the city where you will find most of the action.
14. The annual Festival of Lights, where the castle and the grounds are lit up and musical concerts draw in a crowd of 40,000 visitors, is held at the Sanssouci Palace, which is located in this city?
15. The Brandenburger Klostersommer festival, which takes place every June and July, features music, art exhibits and other events taking place in which churches in Brandenburg? Name two of them.
16. Which of the local beers will you find in Brandenburg?
a. Beck’s b. Wusterhausen c. Kneipe Pur d. Potsdamer Weise e. Red Elephant
17. Brandenburg is famous for its pickles, which can be found in this region? (Hint, this region has been declared a biosphere and listed by UNESCO since 1990).
18. During the days of Communism, Brandenburg was dependent on two key commodities, one of which is still in use today. Choose from the list below:
Mining Tobacco Agriculture Fishing Nuclear Power Tourism
19. Which of the lakes in Brandenburg is the largest and where is it located?
20. There are 82 castles and palaces in the state of Brandenburg. Identify the following below:
a. Altogether (2 of them)
b. Potsdam (3 of them but NOT counting Sanssouci)
c. Spreewald (1)
d. Elbe/Elster District (2 of them)
21. How many churches will you find in Brandenburg with the exception of Potsdam and Cottbus? Estimate your numbers in tens.
22. Which bridge in Brandenburg is famous for its spy exchange during the Cold War? (Note: It is one of many that existed along the Berlin Wall before 1989 and is still in use today).
23. Which city has the highest number of bridges?
a. Potsdam b. Brandenburg c. Cottbus d. Frankfurt e. Görlitz f. Prenzlau
24. The Glienicke Bridge in Potsdam and the Seegarten Bridge in Brandenburg/Havel are the only two cantilever bridges left in the state that carry the same truss design. True or False?
25. Name two existing bridges along the Oder that are older than 75 years.
Have fun taking the challenge. An answer sheet with some interesting facts will follow. Good luck!
“Ding-Dong! Gleis eins, Einfahrt ICE 737 nach Hamburg Hauptbahnhof über Neumünster. Abfahrt 13:25. Vorsicht bei der Einfahrt!” Seconds later, a white worm with black and white stripes approaches the platform of Schleswig, south of Flensburg, where a half dozen passengers board the train heading to Hamburg and all places to the south of there. As the train departs the platform, it takes off at high speed, as it heads to its next station.
Speeds of up to 350 km/ph (218 mph), with comfort seats, a children’s compartment, a rather formal Bord Restaurant and lastly, enjoying the company of other passengers while checking the train schedule via broschure or even computer. At the same time, one can see the landscape fly by with a wink of an eye. These are the characteristics of the Inter City Express trains (short: ICE-trains), the flagship of the German Railways (The Bahn). Since the introduction of the Experimental in 1985 and the ICE-1 in 1991, the ICE-trains have become the most beloved for its service and quickness yet the most scrutinized by others for their delays and air conditioning units going awry (as you probably heard through the song by Wiseguys in the last entry). But little do the readers realize is that the making of the fast train goes back many years, and it took efforts by many people and organizations to make it happen. In this 25th Anniversary of Germany special, we will look at why the ICE-Train has become an integral part of German culture since 1990 and why other countries are looking up to the Bahn and its trains for guidance in constructing their train lines and locs. Furthermore, we will look at the future of the ICE-Trains as the Bahn is entering its next chapter in its storied history.
The First Train: The ICE Experimental
There is an analogy that best describes the development of the ICE-Train, comparing that with the one from the film “Chicken Run”: You cannot have the egg without the chicken- or was it the other way around? Click here to learn more. The same can be applied with the development of the first ICE Train: do you start with the train first or the rail line? The idea of the InterCity trains, which go as fast as 200 km/ph (124 mph) had been realized and put into service since the 1960s, providing services to cities with at least 25,000 inhabitants, yet the Bahn (which was known as the Reichsbahn at that time) was thinking bigger, bolder, and faster. And for a good reason: much of Germany has rugged hills and winding rivers, which made it difficult for trains to achieve speeds higher than 140 km/ph (87 mph). If one combines the amount of regional trains clogging up the rail lines, then it is a foregone conclusion that trains arrived at their destination- eventually!
Henceforth in the 1970s, the German Ministry of Transportation (which was based in Bonn at that time) started an initiative to construct the main artery lines, which would serve fast train services in the future. This included the lines from Mannheim to Hanover via Frankfurt and Fulda, Würzburg to Frankfurt, Hanover to Berlin, Mannheim to Stuttgart, Ingolstadt to Nuremberg and Frankfurt to Cologne. Authorities had envisioned trains travelling along these lines at 300+ km/ph (186 mph) with little or no delays. At the same time, the government (which still owns the Bahn today) contracted to companies like Siemens, to construct the first fast train that was supposed to travel these lines. The end result, after many attempts, was the introduction of the ICE Experimental in 1985. It featured two locomotive heads on each end plus 2-3 coaches. The purpose of the Experimental was to test the maximum speed of the train in hopes to further develop the train for passenger use. The Experimental broke several records, including one on 1 May 1988 at a speed of 406.9 km/ph and topping the French Rail Service’s TGV’s record twice in May 1990: 510.6 km/ph (317.2 mph) on the 9th and 515.3 km/ph (320 mph) on the 18th. All of this was along the completed stretch of the line between Mannheim and Hanover, Würzburg and Frankfurt and Mannheim to Stuttgart. Although passenger use was restricted, the Experimental took the then Soviet President Michail Gorbachev to Dortmund in June 1989 to meet with Chancellor Helmut Kohl, introducing him to the advancement in train technology. Although the Reichsbahn set a speed limit of up to 300 km/ph for fast train services for safety reasons, developments involving the ICE continued, culminating in the introduction of the first of seven types that are still in use today.
After several successful test runs, contracts were let out between the Bahn and German companies, like AEG, Siemens, Thyssen-Henschel, Krupp, etc.) to design the first of seven ICE class trains that are still in use. This class is not only the oldest in service today, but also the longest, as it features (minus the two loc heads) at least 15 coaches- one of which is a Bord Restaurant that resembles a double-decker but in reality, it provides a skylight view while dining. 2-3 coaches are reserved for first class. A computer information system was also included in the trains to provide travellers with information on the train connections- this was later included in future ICE trains. Unlike the InterCity trains, where passengers had to use steps to get on board, the ICE-1 became the first class to make boarding much easier, especially for those who need special assistance. And lastly, the train was climate-controlled, which made travelling a convenience year round.
The ICE-1s made their debuts along the main artery route connecting Basel and Hamburg in 1991 with the first 41 trains being put into service. However, as the lines were expanded to include the Berlin-Hanover, Berlin-Leipzig-Nuremberg-Munich, Munich-Würzburg-Mannheim-Frankfurt, Frankfurt-Erfurt-Leipzig-Dresden, and the Frankfurt-Cologne-Rhein Region lines, plus the extensions to Brussels, Amsterdam, Zurich and Berne, more ICE-1 trains were manufactured and put into use.
Ironically, the ICE-1 trains were introduced in the USA in 1993 to serve the coastal route- specifically, between Boston and Washington via New York City as well as as a demo route between Boston and Portland . Neither bore fruit because of the lack of interest in train travel and were later taken out of service. Yet despite the mentality that train service is for hauling freight, the thought of having high-speed train service has not escaped the minds of many Americans, especially because of environmental reasons, and many cities have been trying to copy the successes of Germany, albeit in snail’s pace.
Despite the successful debut of the ICE-1, the only caveat is because of its length, the maximum speed of this train was 280 km/ph (174 mph). On some of the stretches, the train’s pace around the curves were on par with that of the InterCity trains, which raised questions about the effectiveness of the trains and the need to shorten the trains when designing the next class of trains. This includes the introduction of the ICE-2 Train which made its debut shortly after the ICE-1’s introduction.
Introduced in 1996, the ICE-2 featured a similar design to its forefather the ICE-1, but it had two most noteworthy exceptions. The first is that the trains were shorter in length- eight coaches and two loc-heads, which includes the Bord Restaurant and 1-2 first class coaches. The second is that the train was the first to feature a coupling which can attach to another ICE-2 train, thus making it longer. A demonstration on how this concept works can be found below:
The danger of this mechanism is the potential of the train to derail due to crosswind during storms and headwind from oncoming trains. The end result: a speed limit of 200 km/ph (124 mph) and its use on lesser-used lines that use ICE-1 trains seldomly. Therefore, one can find ICE-2 trains on lines connecting Berlin, Hanover and the Rhein-Ruhr region, as well as between Hamburg and Cologne (later extending to Kiel), Bremen and Hamburg (extending to Berlin), as well as between Frankfurt and Cologne via Coblence. They are also used as a substitute for the next class of trains to be discussed, the ICE-T, should it be deemed necessary. Despite the train’s shortcomings, they have gained popularity in other European countries as they were implemented and/or mimicked in Belgium, Spain, Italy and France, just to name a few.
The next class of ICE-Trains to make its debut was the ICE-T. Not to be mistaken with the American rapper turned actor ICE-T, this train has one unique feature that makes it one of the most versatile of the ICE-trains: its tilting technology. A demonstration on how it works is below:
That, plus its ability to reach speeds of up to 250 km/ph and its coupling technology made it useful on rail-lines that normally use InterCity lines. Therefore when it was introduced in 1999, it was put into service along the line connecting Berlin and Munich via Leipzig, Jena, Bamberg and Nuremberg as well as the line between Frankfurt and Dresden via Fulda, Erfurt, Weimar and Leipzig. They were later used on lines connecting Switzerland with Stuttgart and Munich, respectively, Frankfurt and Vienna, as well as between Berlin and Rostock and Hamburg, respectively (even though its terminus had been in Kiel at one time). The trains have two different types: one featuring 10 coaches and one with 7 coaches. This include the end coaches as the motors of the trains are found in the bottom part of the train. It was also the first to introduce the Bord Bistro, a sandwich/snackbar which normally would be found on InterCity trains, as well as a play area, which has been a focus of several critiques from parents, one of which was written by the Files in 2011.
The ICE-T became a forefront of another class of ICE-Train which became one’s loss and one’s gain, the ICE-TD.
As seen in the picture above, the train stopping at Schleswig is an example of a train class that is still being used despite its shortcomings, the diesel-version of the ICE-T. Introduced in 2001, the ICE-TD was similar to its sister but ran on diesel. It operated along the Vogtland route between Dresden and Nuremberg (extending to Munich) via Hof and Bayreuth as well as between Munich and Zurich. These lines were not electrified but the high number of passengers boarding along these routes justified the use of these trains. Yet technical problems combined with an increase in diesel taxes to be paid by the Bahn made its service shortlived. While the trains were decommissioned in 2004, they were recommissioned two years later to provide extra service for those going to the World Cup Soccer tournaments taking place in Germany. Subsequentially, all 20 train units were bought by the Danish Rail Services (DSB) a year later and have since been serving the northern half of Germany: one line between Berlin and Aarhus via Hamburg, Flensburg and Kolding and one between Berlin and Copenhagen via Hamburg, Lübeck, Fehmarn and Ringsted. A happy ending for a class of trains that was one the black sheep of the Bahn but has become the darlings for the Danes.
At the same time as the ICE-T, the ICE-3 made its debut for the Bahn. Featuring eight coaches including the end coaches, the trains up until most recently had been the fastest of the ICE-Trains in service, reaching maximum speeds of up to 330 km/ph (205 mph), making them suitable for the main artery tracks that do not require the twists and turns of the ICE-2 and ICE-T trains. Introduced for the World Expo in Hanover in 2000, the trains have since served the lines connecting Frankfurt-Basel, Frankfurt-Amsterdam via Cologne, Frankfurt-Brussels via Cologne and Frankfurt-Paris via Strassburg.
The Velaro version of the ICE-3 train is the newest version of the ICE train, and perhaps one that will dominate the European continent if the Bahn has it their way. The concept was first conceived in 2009 and since 2014, the first trains have taken over some of the important lines, namely between Cologne, Frankfurt and Munich. This may change in the next year as more of these trains, looking sleeker than the original ICE-3 but going just as fast as its predecessor, are set to take over some of the main artery lines, including the new line between Berlin and Nuremberg via Erfurt. In addition, with its successful test run through the Euro-Tunnel, the Bahn is looking at commissioning these trains to serve the line to London via Paris and/or Brussels. As the time to travel to Frankfurt from London takes six hours instead of 18-20 with normal trains, the use of these trains for this purpose, if successful, could take the Bahn to newer levels, causing other countries to look at Germany as an example of how passenger rail service can be developed. Sadly though, the introduction of the ICE-3V will come at the cost of two train classes: The ICE-1 and ICE-2, despite their recent renovations, will be decomissioned, bit by bit, beginning in 2020 and 2025, respectively. While the newer versions will change the image of the Bahn, many people will miss the older versions that have made rail travel faster but comfortable.
Finally, the latest advancement in train technology that will take rail travel further beyond 2020 is the ICx. The concept has been worked on by several companies in the private sectors but the trains will feature both this version, a cross between the ICE-2 and the ICE-3 with 12 coaches, as well as a double-decker version. The designs have not yet been finalized, but two factors are certain: They will be slower than the ICE-trains with speeds, maxing out at 200 km/ph (124 mph), plus they will replace the existing InterCity trains that are over 35 years old and are meeting the end of their useful lives. Already planned is the commissioning of the lines in the eastern half of Germany beginning in 2020, the lines one which InterCity and former ICE trains once travelled will have these trains in use by 2030, including areas in Bavaria, Baden-Wurttemberg and parts of northern Germany.
In the past 40 years, we have seen the advancement in passenger train technology in Germany and beyond, starting with the construction of new high-speed lines and the development of high speed trains, followed by the advancement of train technology to make trains faster but safer for use, the expansion and modernization of existing rail lines to attract more passengers, and the extension of rail services to as far away as the UK and Russia. The railroad landscape is currently undergoing a transformation where, with the introduction and commissioning of new trains, many lines are being designated for certain trains. While this may come at the dismay of residents of cities, like Wolfsburg, Jena, Weimar and other smaller communities, who will see their ICE train services be replaced with ICx, in the end, rail travel in Germany will still remain a lasting experience. This applies to those who never had never gotten the luxury to travel by train before because of the lack of availability, but have recently tried it and would do anything to use the train again on the next trip. A friend of mine from North Dakota had that experience during her last visit to Germany and has that on her list of things to do again on the next European trip. But for those who think that train travel restricts the freedom to travel wherever they want to, here’s a little food for thought worth mulling as this long article comes to a close:
Travel is fatal to prejudice, bigotry, and narrow-mindedness- Mark Twain
If one wishes to try something new, as an alternative to traveling by car (or sometimes by plane), one has to open up to the options that are in front of us, and look at all the benefits involved. This is what makes Germany a special place. We have the bus, the boats, the bike, and despite all the bickering, the Bahn. 😉
High Winds Causes Downed Trees, Hinders Train Services, Causes Damages to Buildings
Bikers being blown off by high winds, high waves causing local flooding and damages, flying carousels, and trains eating fallen trees pretty much sums up a day in total chaos throughout Germany and central Europe yesterday, as the storm Niklas blew through the region, with winds gusting up to 190 km/ph or 100 mph. Many downed trees and flying debris caused damage to overhead powerlines on rail lines, thus bringing rail service to a standstill in many parts of the countries. In Bavaria, Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia, rail service was suspended completely, forcing many trains to stop at the nearest train stations and personnel to provide lodging possibilities for tens of thousands of stranded commuters. In Lower Saxony, one regional train was unable to stop in time to avoid a falling tree. In many cities, such as Munich and Berlin, light rail (S-bahn) services were halted. High winds also caused many semis and even cars to flip over on German autobahns, causing many to be closed for long periods of time. Flights in and out of Frankfurt and other cities were cancelled due to high winds. Even some festivals, like the annual city market in Flensburg, were called off due to flying debris and high waves. Snow was reported in the northern half of Germany, in places like Rostock and Hamburg. The storm is believed to be one of the worst in recent history, comparing it to the storm Kyril, which devastated many parts of Europe in February 2007. There, high winds and torrential rainfall caused extensive damage, power outages in entire cities, like Magdeburg (in Saxony-Anhalt), and the first-ever shut down of rail service and highways on a federal level.
While the winds have now subsided a bit today, Easter here in Germany and parts of Europe is not looking good for any children wanting to hunt for Easter eggs. Snow, rain and winds are expected through the weekend, thus creating the possibility of a white Easter for the third time in four years. Better get the Bing Crosby song out for Easter Sunday, because “It’s beginning to look a lot like Christ- ma; Oh wait! Ea-ster!” 😉
Wishing you safe travels and make the best of Easter despite Old Man Winter’s attempt to try and ruin it!
The Flensburg Files has compiled a list of links taking you to the galleries, where you can see the damage done by Niklas. The sources are below:
Total Eclipse shadows the entire state, as 80% of the moon covers sun. 100% covers extreme Western Europe and the North Atlantic.
BERLIN/ERFURT/COLOGNE- As many as 70% of the German population or 50 million took advantage of the gorgeous weather and, armed with their cameras, smart phones and specialized sunglasses, photographed the sun as the moon covered up to 80% of it, putting the country into partial darkness. Despite worries that the eclipse could wreak havoc on the electirical power systems because Germany is mostly dependent on solar energy, it was reported that there were no problems and everything was running well as if nothing happened. The eclipse occurred at 10:42am Berlin time, almost an hour after the process started, and ended shortly after 12noon. The area where people could get the best view of the eclipse was in the states of Rhineland-Palatinate, North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony. However, people in other German states had an opportunity to see the moon cover 70-75% of the sun.
This included the city of Erfurt in central Thuringia, where the moon covered up to 75% of the sun, making it resemble on the one hand, the moon at first quarter mode, but on the other hand a full moon. In other words, there was the brightest first quarter on record, if one looks at it from an astronomer’s point of view. The clear weather made it difficult to purchase specialized sunglasses, which you can wear to look up to the sun at the time of the eclipse, for many drug stores, pharmacists, glasses dealerships and optometrists ran out of stock up to two days prior to the event. This was the exact opposite of the last partial solar eclipse that occurred in 2005. There, rainy weather hindered any chances of viewing this rare event, thus dropping sales for these eye protectors dramatically.
While I was unable to purchase this pair of sunglasses, I did find one to use with an optometrist, whose shop was located at Erfurt’s city center, Anger- located between city hall and the train station. Although the pair was for lending and sharing purposes, I took the opportunity to wear them, while at the same time, cover the lens of the Pentax camera I had in my possession in an attempt to get a close-up look at the eclipse. Normally you are not supposed to get a direct shot at the eclipse for two reasons:
- The photo would turn out the same as it were without the eclipse- beautiful sunny skies just a little dimmer and
- Most importantly, looking directly at the sun at the time of the eclipse is very dangerous, for the rays could cause irreparable damage to the cornea, thus causing damage or even blindness.
As a tip one can get a selfie of the eclipse with the back towards the sun or simply leave it and have a look at the eclipse through TV and internet. However, even though I did get some shots of the places in Erfurt at the time of the eclipse (not to worry, I did this with my eyes looking down), I experimented by placing the specialized sunglasses over the lens of the camera, then zoomed in manually as far as it could go.
Unless you have had many years of experience in photography as I have had (I’ve been photographing since I was 11 years old), and you are daring enough to do this, this author does not recommend doing this- at least not without supervision. In order to get a shot like this, you need a special lens equivalent to what I used in order to get a shot like this. All other options are useless, for they would end up like the pic below- at the peak of the eclipse:
Whether a pic like this can be done like this with a special lens is doubtful for you may not get the picture you need. Admittedly though, it is worth experimenting, but if and only if the next opportunity arises, which for a solar eclipse like this one, it is rare. For many of us, this is perhaps the last time we will ever see one like this as the next one to come to Germany will be in 66 years. A partial eclipse in Germany will come again in 2022. However the next total eclipse to reach the US will be in two years’ time. So for those who are hunting for the next solar eclipse (and I’m sure there are groups out there who are crazy about solar eclipses), mark this on your calendar at least, even though one may come beforehand.
But even not, for many like yours truly, this experience was once in a lifetime, which has now been crossed off our bucket list.
The Flensburg Files has an album on the solar eclipse in Germany through facebook, which you can click here to view. The Files’ is accepting photos taken by other photographers- amateur and profis alike- to be added to the album. If you have a photo or two to contribute, please send it to Jason Smith either through facebook or via e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org. Please cite your name and the place where the photo(s) took place. The purpose of the album is for other viewers to see. Thank you for your help in this matter.
Highlights of the solar eclipse are also available through the following sources:
MDR Info (Video of the Solar Eclipse) in D: http://www.mdr.de/nachrichten/video260046_zc-e9a9d57e_zs-6c4417e7.html
Deutsche Welle (Highlights of the Solar Eclipse) in EN: http://www.dw.de/cloudy-skies-obscure-solar-eclipse-in-much-of-europe/a-18330146
MDR Info (Gallery of the Solar Eclipse in Germany) in D: http://www.mdr.de/galerie/mdr/thumbnails.php?album=73
Tagesschau (Information and pictures of the Solar Eclipse) in D: http://www.tagesschau.de/sonnenfinsternis-165.html
German Olympic Committee Recommends Hamburg over Berlin as Host for 2024 Summer Olympic Games- Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Pommerania and Lower Saxony to Benefit from the Games
FRANKFURT (MAIN)- It came down to two of the five major German metropolises to host the 2024 Olympic Games- Berlin or Hamburg. Both of them in the northern half of the country. The German capital last hosted it in 1936, less than three years before World War II broke out. Being the third time it would have hosted the Games, it has the 1936 stadium, various sporting complexes and various lakes. Hamburg is an up and coming city. The second largest city has a dense and advanced infrastructure, is modernized and environmentally friendly and has direct access to the Baltic Sea through neighboring Schleswig-Holstein.
Therefore, it came as no surprise that the German Olympic Committee at a meeting in Frankfurt (Main) last night has recommended the candidate for the 2024 games goes to (drumroll, please…..)
There are many reasons why the hanseatic city deserves the bid over the German capital. Hamburg has become a tourist appeal in the last 10+ years thanks to the efforts of modernizing the city to meet the demands of the population, while at the same time, bring the city and its history and culture to the forefront. Much of which you will find in the video clips below, and the Files will feature the city as the next candidate for Germany’s 25th anniversary quiz to be presented on the 24th of March. It was the host of the 2013 German Floral Show (Bundesgartenschau) with one of the largest suburbs, Wilhelmsburg being the pet for the International Building Exhibition, which ended in 2013. Once relying on coal and nuclear power, the city has embraced various forms of renewable energy, through wind, hydro and geothermal. The city prides itself on its sports teams in soccer, handball and basketball, to name a few. Plus with its sound infrastructure, one can reach the Baltic Sea in no less than 45 minutes and the North Sea in less than an hour.
The plan of the city to host the 2024 Games is easy: make it small and simple. A Olympic complex on the island of Kleinen Grasbrook that is to be a sports complex afterwards. Grasbrook was once an industrial complex. Basketball, soccer and handball would be played in the northern cities of Bremen, Cuxhaven, Travemünde, Rostock, Kiel and Flensburg, just to name a few. Boating and yachting either in Travemünde or Kiel. For Kiel, it would be blessing as it had last hosted this event in 1972. For the northern German states of Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Pommerania and Lower Saxony, helping to shoulder the burden of the events (and the costs) Hamburg will have to face will make the northern region a very attractive place during the Summer Games. Speaking from the point of view of the expat looking in, the northern half of the country prides itself on it sporting events that do not require hills and mountains, but on courts and nets or in the water. So having Hamburg as the candidate for the Games is no surprise for it has what the athletes need and then some. When spending time in the region, one will want to come back again and again, because of the people, the culture, the landscape, the landscape, and lastly, the mentality where simplicity and friendliness trumps all the complications an even bigger city has, let alone all the extravaganzas that many hosts have overdone in the previous Olympics, like in Athens or Peking.
However, despite the recommendations, all is not set in stone for Hamburg. An extraordinary meeting takes place on March 21st, where the German Olympic Committee board members are expected to confirm Hamburg’s nomination. Hamburg will be competing with Boston for the rights to host the Games, with the decision to be made in Lima, Peru in 2017. Should the International Olympics Committee vote in favor of the German City-State, it will be Hamburg’s very first time, and one where many athletes, politicians and the majority of the population in the city and the affected northern states believe that the city deserves, given its pride in sports and its recent developments in their favor.
And if Hamburg wins and does a great job in hosting the games, it would not be surprising if it becomes the main go-to city for future Games, surpassing Berlin or even Munich (at least as far as the Summer Games are concerned), not just because of its attractiveness and its simplicity in planning its events, but because of its access to areas where people pride themselves in their own sporting events. And with that, the Files is throwing its support to Hamburg in hopes that the decision in 2017 falls in their favor. Best of luck and let’s bring the torch to Hollen Nord, shall we? 😀
Some reasons why one should visit Hamburg can be found here:
Reminder: You still have one week to finish Germany’s first quiz on the northernmost German state of Schleswig-Holstein. To get access to the quiz, click here. The answers will come on March 24th, the same day as the quiz on Hamburg will be presented.
BERLIN; ERFURT- More than 2.5 million people (or 70% of the city’s population) converged on Berlin over the weekend to commemorate the fall of the Berlin Wall. The biggest highlight of the event was on Sunday, where over a million people were on hand during the course of the day and evening as speeches were held to honor those who risked their lives escaping from East to West Berlin, as well as the hundreds of thousands of people who pressured the East German government to open the borders- the demand that Guenter Schabowski, the spokesman for East Germany’s Central Committee granted on 9 November, 1989. German Chancellor Angela Merkel and many prominent politicians spoke at the ceremony at the Bernauer Strasse Memorial. She was greeted by Michail Gorbachev, the former leader of the Soviet Union whose policies of non-intervention and openness led to countries like East Germany to overthrow their communist leaders and break away from the communist bloc. He spoke at the symposium in front of Brandenburg Gate. Concerts took place throughout the evening by many singers and music groups. Among those performing at the Brandenburg Gate were former East German singer Udo Lindenburg, British pop star Peter Gabriel and German techno artist Paul Kalkbrenner. The events culminated with the releasing of 8,000 balloons along the former border dividing East and West Berlin. The led-lit balloons were established along the border where the Berlin Wall once stood, indicating where and how the wall had divided Berliners for 28 years.
Some highlights of the 25th Anniversary events can be seen in the videos below. Readers wanting to know more about the Wall and the celebrations of its downfall can be seen in the Flensburg Files’ facebook page (click here for direct access). There you can find videos, photos and articles in both German and English of the events. Like to follow as the Files will provide some articles and interesting facts pertaining to the events leading to the reunification of Germany.
The Releasing of the Balloons
Paul Kalkbrenner at Brandenburg Gate
Michail Gorbachev at the Celebrations
But Berlin was not the only place where the 25th anniversary celebrations took place. Many places along the former East and West German borders, from Lübeck to Marienhof to Modlareuth to Hof commemorated the symbolic event of 9 November 1989 in various ways. Some brief examples can be seen below:
HOF: As many as 250 East German automobiles, among them the Trabant and the Wartburg, and their owners and passengers made a pilgrimage from Plauen in Saxony to Hof in Bavaria. There, people had an opportunity to reenact history of the event, where residents on the western side greeted those on the eastern side with sweets, champaign and the like. In order for the reenactment to be played in full, organizers reconstructed make-shift borders and inspection buildings resembling those that had existed before being torn down shortly after the borders opened. Hundreds of people took part in the event and had an opportunity to see the display of the cars typical for East Germany but are becoming a rare breed. A video of the event is below for you to look at.
Fast fact: Trabant produced its cars in Zwickau in western Saxony. The company closed in 1997. Wartburg produced its cars in Eisenach in western Thuringia. It was bought by Opel after the border opened and is still in business today.
Trabi Caravan from Plauen to Hof
MODLAREUTH: A caravan of Trabants and some local celebrations in the village of 60 people commemorated the opening of the border. Located on the border to Thuringia and Bavaria, Modlareuth was divided by the border as East German soldiers forced many residents to move to higher ground, while they tore down houses along the creek that flows through the village to erect the barbed-wire fence and border towers. For 28 years, this village became known as Little Berlin because of the Wall. Yet despite still being divided in terms of jurisdiction, the people consider Modlareuth one home and one village. Celebrations commemorating the opening of the gate included a tour of a portion of the border and control tower, which was given to the German-German Museum and has been preserved for visitors to see.
VACHA: State ministers Christine Lieberknecht (Thuringia) and Volker Bouffier (Hesse) were at the Vacha Bridge, spanning the Werra River between the Thuringian village and Philipsthal in Hesse, laying a wreath at the center of the span and honoring those who tried to flee to the western part of Germany during the Cold War. Severely damaged and impassable because of World War II, the bridge was closed to all people when the borders were put up in 1961 and remained so until 1989. The bridge was later rebuilt. “November 9th was a lucky day,” said Lieberknecht in her speech to hundreds of people at the bridge. “The strive for freedom and democracy defeated socialism and a state-controlled economy.” More on the speech here.
For those who could not attend any of the events, there were plenty of opportunities to watch the events on TV, let alone the facts about the East-West Border and the Berlin Wall. This included the children’s TV series “Die Sendung mit der Maus,” which featured a special on the border between then and right now, based on the travels of one of the moderators. A link is available for you to watch and listen to the stories behind the border crossings chosen for the trip:
Summer Tour along the Former East-West Border with the Maus:
The rest of the programs can be found in the Flensburg Files’ facebook page. There you can access the programs in either language and learn about the Fall of the Wall and the celebrations that followed then as well as yesterday.
25 years ago, there were two Germanys- the German Democratic Republic (better known to many as East Germany) and the Federal Republic of Germany (better known as West Germany). It was a Germany that for 44 years was the chessboard for international conflict between two heavyweights- the United States on the western side and the Soviet Union on the eastern side. It was a Germany that should have been a whole country, but wasn’t because of the Berlin Wall (erected in 1961) and the weapons that were stationed on both sides, waiting to be used. It was the divided Germany that tore families and friendships apart. And for a long time, it was a divided Germany whose citizens were restrained from reuniting with family members and friends on the opposite end. It would have remained that way- until 9 November 1989.
This Sunday, all of Germany will celebrate the 25th anniversary of the Fall of the Berlin Wall, and throughout the rest of the year and well into next year, celebrations commemorating the Revolution of 1989 and German Reunification of 1990 will take place, giving residents and tourists in Germany and Europe a chance to learn more about how 1989 set the stage for the end of the Cold War, the reestablishment of one Germany and the establishment of a New World Order for international politics both in Europe and beyond. The hottest spot for the 25th anniversary celebrations of the Fall of the Wall will take place in Berlin, and here’s why:
A row of lights have been erected along the border of what used to be the Berlin Wall, which had surrounded the western part of Berlin for 28 years until its fall in 1989. These lights (encased in balloons) will line the borders and will be released into the skies on the evening of November 9th with millions of people including prominent people on hand. In addition, information pavillions will be available at the former key crossings, such as Checkpoint Charlie, East Side Gallery, Potsdamer Platz and Brandenburg Gate to provide visitors with a chance to learn about the history of the Wall. A pair of concerts will take place both at Brandenburg Gate and the Philoharmonie Hall that evening, and a permanent exhibit will be commemorated at the Bernauer Strasse former border crossing. More on the events can be found here.
In addition, four museums in Berlin and six museums located along the former East and West German borders will be open for with exhibits commemorating the opening of the borders. This includes Checkpoint Bravo and Marienfelde in Berlin as well as museums in Mödlareuth, Point Alpha, Eichsfeld and Kühlungsborn. More information here.
In Leipzig, two photo exhibits looking at the peaceful revolution of 1989 and the disarmament of the East German State Secret Police (Stasi) are taking place between now and December, The former can be found at the Deutsches Photomuseum in Markkleeberg through 28 December (more here) while the latter will be on display until 31 December at the former Stasi Building at Dittrichring 24 in Leipzig (see here for details) Leipzig was the starting point of the Revolution of 1989, which saw its largest showing on October 9th, triggering the downfall of Erich Honecker and setting off the sequence that culminated with the fall of the Wall.
You can also find more information on other events and places of interested in connection with 1989 here: http://www.germany.info/fallofthewall
Between now and 3 October of next year, the Flensburg Files will look at the factors that led to east and west becoming a whole Germany. There are many reasons that made Germany is what it is today, most of which will be mentioned here. This will include some Q&A with people who contributed to the remaking Germany, as well as some items that are typical of today’s Germany in comparison with what it was before 1989. Some books and other works will be featured here. If you have some items that are typical of Germany and would like to see posted here, let the author know at: email@example.com. The Files also welcomes photos of the November 9th events as well as places along the former border for people to look at and/or guess at where they are located.
It has been 25 years since the Revolution, and a lot has changed over time. But the events of 9 November and the factors leading to German Reunification are events that one must never forget, regardless if one lives here in Germany or elsewhere. This leads to the final question for the forum:
Look at the pictures below: Where do you think it was located? Hint: Lauenstein in Bavaria is one of the villages where the border once stood. But what was the purpose of the house and the memorial in the form of a wave? You can place your answers in the comment section.
Since 3rd October, 1990, the Federal Republic of Germany has been in existence, featuring the states of the former West Germany and those of East Germany (or better known as the German Democratic Republic). This includes the largest state, Bavaria, which is as big as the entire state of Iowa but is also the richest of the 16 states. We also have Baden-Wurttemberg and Hesse, two of the most populous states and known as the hot spots for jobs. Then we have the former East German States of Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia, Brandenburg, and Mecklenburg-Pommerania. And lastly, we have the city-states of Hamburg, Bremen and Berlin, the third of which is the nation’s capital. Then we have Saarland, one of the poorest states in the union and the source of the recent proposal brought forth by Minister Annagret Kramp-Karrenbauer. Her proposal: to reduce the number of states to six to eight instead of the original 16 states. The source: The Solidarity Pact, which runs out in less than five years.
To summarize: the Solidarity Pact, signed into law in 1990, required that the rich states, namely in case, Bavaria, Hesse and Baden-Wurttemberg to provide financial support to the other German states, to ensure that the states can be provided with enough capital to survive and avoid a financial disaster, similar to what we saw with the Great Crisis six years ago in the US and the EU. Yet Hesse and Bavaria do not want to carry the burden of these states anymore and with Saarland having the highest debt of any state in Germany, it is not surprising that Kramp-Karrenbauer is proposing such measures, one that is deemed radical and absurd among conservatives, especially in Bavaria, but given the trend in the European Union with states giving up more of their autonomy for a rather transparent one, it is not a surprise. This is especially given the attempts of states to cooperate together to consolidate their resources.
Let’s look at the former East Germany, for example. Since 2004, consolidation in the private sector as well as cooperation within public sector has been under development. This includes the merger of the health care insurance provider AOK in Thuringia, Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt, as well as cooperation and consolidation attempts among academic institutions at the universities in these three states. Furthermore, cooperation between Berlin and the state of Brandenburg in the private and public sectors have resulted in ideas and ways to integrate the capital into Brandenburg. Even a referendum was put up to a vote, which was rejected by Berliners and Brandenburgers alike. In both examples, it is clear that because of the substantial demographic changes that have been witnessed since German Reunification in 1990, combined with poor job market possibilities that the long-term goal is to consolidate the states into one entity. That means Berlin would belong to Brandenburg and thus lose its city-state status, yet it would still be the national and state capital, a double-task that is not welcomed by many in both areas. As for the other states, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia would become Mitteldeutschland, with either Leipzig or Dresden being the capital and the other “former” state capitals becoming the seats of the districts. This concept is also not welcomed by many in these regions because of the potential to lose thousands of jobs in the consolidation process, combined with the closing of several institutions in the public sector. Attempts have already been tried with the university system in these three states, which were met with protests in the tens of thousands.
But the problems do not lie just in the Berlin-Brandenburg area, let alone the Mitteldeutschland area. The attractiveness of the states of Bavaria, Baden-Wurrtemberg and Hesse has resulted in a shift in population and businesses to these regions from areas in northern and eastern Germany, thus causing a strain in the social resources available in both areas. Northern states are battling high unemployment and social problems, whereas southern states are struggling to keep up the demand for housing. While the Solidarity Pact has had its advantages, especially in the eastern part of Germany, where cities like Halle (Saale), Leipzig, Dresden, Erfurt and Berlin have undergone a major transformation from becoming run-down Communist cities to modern cities with historic nostalgia (reliving the days before Hitler took power and brought Germany to a blazing inferno known as World War II), there is still work to be done in terms of dealing with problems of unemployment, influx of immigration and the struggles to accommodate people, attracting jobs for all and improving education standards in school as well as in the university. The solidarity pact was a good project, but with states on both sides of the former Cold War border struggling to relieve the burden of debt and social problems, Kramp-Karrenbauer’s plan just might be that remedy Germany really needs. With less autonomy because of its interwoven policies of the European Union, there is really no need for all 16 states to function individually, receiving money from the rich states in order to survive.
This leads to the question of how to consolidate the German states. As it would be absurd to give up its city-state status, Berlin should remain an individual entity, receiving its funding from all the German states, but being ruled by the federal government- not the city government itself. It has been done in Washington, DC, as well as Monaco and Singapore. Losing its city-state status would be as preposterous as Washington becoming part of either Maryland or Virginia. James Madison and his forefathers would rise from their graves and make sure that proposal would never happen. So, as Germans would say it: “Finger weg vom Berlin!” As for Hamburg and Bremen, their financial and social woes have put a strain on their resources in general. Hence a merger with another German state would be both inevitable and beneficial.
But how to consolidate the other states is very difficult because the financial resources lie in the south and west of Germany. Henceforth it is impossible to anchor the rich states with the poor ones, with the possible exceptions of Bavaria merging with Saxony and Thuringia, Hesse merging with North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony and Baden Wurttemberg merging with Saarland and Rhineland Palatinate. That would still leave the problem with Schleswig-Holstein, the three German city-states, and the remaining states that had once been part of East Germany because no financial beneficiaries would be found to govern the region. Therefore anchoring the rich with the poor is out of the question. Also out of the question would be the old historic borders, where we have one large state of Saxony (instead of Upper, Lower and Anhalt Saxony), Thuringia becomes part of Bavaria, North Rhine-Westphalia takes over Rhineland Palatinate and Saarland, and Baden Wurrtemberg takes Hesse. Financially, the equilibrium would point clearly to the fourth region proposed here, thus putting the others at a mere disadvantage. Ideally would be to combine geography and finances so that the equilibrium is firmly established and everyone would benefit from it. That means, instead of having 16 states, one could see three giant German states and Berlin having its own district. While this proposal would be even more radical than that of Kramp-Karrenbauer’s, given the current situation in Germany, this alignment may be inevitable as financial and domestic problems as a result of lack of resources come to a head in 20 years at the most.
Here’s one of the proposal that should be considered:
Süddeutschland: Consisting of Bavaria, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia and Brandenburg. Capital would have to be in the central part of the new state, such as Erfurt, Leipzig or Nuremberg. Munich would have its own city-state status.
Norddeutschland: Consisting of Hesse, Lower Saxony, Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Pommerania, Hamburg and Bremen. Capital should be located in Hamburg, Hannover or Lübeck. Frankfurt would keep its financial headquarters in tact.
Westdeutschland: Consisting of Baden-Wurttemberg the states along the Rhine, including Saarland. Capital would be in Cologne. Stuttgart would be one of the district capitals along with Mannheim/Ludwigshafen, Freiburg im Breisgau, Coblence and Saarbrücken.
One can go with Kramp-Karrenbauer’s proposal of 6-8 states, but it should be noted that if two states consolidate, one should be the stronger one supporting the weaker one(s) but as long as the resources are pooled and the people will benefit from the merger. The last option would be to abolish all 16 states and have one Germany which has control over the entire country. This may be too communistic for the taste of many people, and some people may compare this to the period of the Third Reich. But with Germany being more and more part of the European Union, that option may also be brought onto the table in German Parliament.
But to sum up, the idea of having less German states is the most viable option in order for the German states to remain healthy. Kramp-Karrenbauer’s idea may sound absurd, but it may become inevitable as Germany becomes more integrated into the EU, which may be more of a blessing than a curse. The question is how to redraw the bounderies. What do you think? Should Germany be reduced in half? Perhaps in three giant states? How would you redraw the boundaries of the Bundesrepublik? Share your thoughts here as well as in the Files’ facebook pages and help Kramp-Karrenbauer push her agenda to the politicians in Berlin keeping in mind the risks and benefits the proposals may bring.
Co-produced with Sister Column, The Bridgehunter’s Chronicles
A few months ago, the Flensburg Files and sister column the Bridgehunter’s Chronicles produced a two-article series on architectural and infrastructural history and their place in the educational curriculum, which included a Guessing Quiz for people to try out. While you can still try the quiz (click here), here are the answers you should have:
1. In the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, structures made of iron melted like lava, which contributed to the destruction of hundreds of buildings made of iron and wood. True or False? False. Most of the houses and buildings that had existed prior to the fire were made of wood and iron. Iron had a low melting temperature which contributed to thousands of buildings to collapse in the heat of the blazing inferno that killed over 300 residents. Ironically, the city’s water tower survived the Great Fire, but the 100-foot tall structure was made of stone. It still remains today as the lone structure that had survived the fire
2. The Chicago School of Architecture was developed shortly after the Great Fire featuring which architects? Name three and how they contributed to architecture. There were over a dozen well-known architects from this school, including William LeBaron Jenney (who invented the skyscraper), Louis Sullivan (who spearheaded the modernist architecture) and Frank Lloyd Wright (who invented the prairie home). A link with more architects and their contributions can be found here.
3. Who created the first automobile in the world: Ransom Olds, Carl Benz or Henry Ford?
Carl Benz was the first person who created the first automobile in 1885; Ransom Olds created the first automobile dependent on gasoline in 1896; Henry Ford was the first to create the assembly line plant to create their automobile in masses in 1908.
4. The Diesel Motor was created in ______ and is named after this German inventor?
The diesel motor was invented by Rudolf Diesel in 1893
5. List the following canals that were built between 1871 and 1915 in chronological order.
Panama Canal Dortmund-Ems Canal Danube Canal Erie Canal Elbe-Lübeck Canal Baltic-North Sea Canal Berlin-Havelland Canal
Baltic-North Sea Canal (1887-95); Elbe-Lübeck Canal (1895- 1921); Dortmund-Ems Canal (1899); Panama Canal (1914); Erie Canal- new (1908-18); The Danube and Berlin Canals were built in the 1950s
6. Prairie Homes consisted of 1-2 story homes made of geometric shapes resembling circles and triangles. True or False? Who invented the Prairie Homes (Hint: he was part of the Chicago School of Architecture).
False, rectangular and cube-shaped architecture were the features of the Prairie Homes invented by Frank Lloyd Wright.
7. Thomas Edison invented the light bulb in 1878, yet Berlin received its first set of electrical lighting in this year?
Berlin received its first electrical lighting in 1884
8. Which of the following bridge engineers did NOT immigrate to the US?
Seth Hewett, Lawrence Johnson, Gustav Lindenthal, John Roebling, Friedrich Voss, Wendel Bollmann
Seth Hewett and the rest of the Hewett family were born in Minnesota. William Hewett originated from Maine.
9. The Minneapolis School of Bridge Builders emerged in the 1890s and later became a counterpart to the American Bridge Company conglomerate after the consolidation of _____ bridge builders in 1901. This School featured which family of bridge builders?
Hewett, Johnson, Bayne, Jones The Hewett Clan, Alexander Bayne, Commodore Jones and Lawrence Johnson made up the Minneapolis School of Bridge Building, where over a dozen bridge building firms were located in Minneapolis, Minnesota
Hewett, Fink, King, Bayne
Voss, King, Jones, Humboldt
Hewett, Maillard, Lindenthal, Steinmann
10. The Rendsburg High Bridge was the first bridge in the world that used the loop trestly approach. True or False? If false, when and where was the first loop trestle approach used? (See video here)
False. The Hastings Spiral Bridge in Hastings, Minnesota, built in 1895 by the Wisconsin Bridge and Iron Works Company was the first structure that introduced the pigtail approach, located on the Hastings side. The bridge was replaced by Big Blue in 1951, which in turn was dismantled after Big Red opened last year.
It is hoped that an extended version of the Guessing Quiz would be available for use in the classroom. That plan is still in the works and will be made available through an external source in the near future. Once it’s finished and posted, you will be informed here in the Files as well as in the Chronicles. Stay tuned.