Guessing Quiz Answers: Architectural History

Schoneman Park Bridge in Luverne, Minnesota. One of many bridges built by the Hewett Family. This lone Waddell truss bridge was built in 1908 by William S. Hewett

                                             Co-produced with Sister Column, The Bridgehunter’s Chronicles

A few months ago, the Flensburg Files and sister column the Bridgehunter’s Chronicles produced a two-article series on architectural and infrastructural history and their place in the educational curriculum, which included a Guessing Quiz for people to try out. While you can still try the quiz (click here), here are the answers you should have:

 

1.  In the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, structures made of iron melted like lava, which contributed to the destruction of hundreds of buildings made of iron and wood.  True or False?  False. Most of the houses and buildings that had existed prior to the fire were made of wood and iron. Iron had a low melting temperature which contributed to thousands of buildings to collapse in the heat of the blazing inferno that killed over 300 residents. Ironically, the city’s water tower survived the Great Fire, but the 100-foot tall structure was made of stone. It still remains today as the lone structure that had survived the fire

 

2. The Chicago School of Architecture was developed shortly after the Great Fire featuring which architects? Name three and how they contributed to architecture.  There were over a dozen well-known architects from this school, including William LeBaron Jenney (who invented the skyscraper), Louis Sullivan (who spearheaded the modernist architecture) and Frank Lloyd Wright (who invented the prairie home). A link with more architects and their contributions can be found here

3. Who created the first automobile in the world: Ransom Olds, Carl Benz or Henry Ford?

Carl Benz was the first person who created the first automobile in 1885; Ransom Olds created the first automobile dependent on gasoline in 1896; Henry Ford was the first to create the assembly line plant to create their automobile in masses in 1908. 

4. The Diesel Motor was created in ______ and is named after this German inventor?

The diesel motor was invented by Rudolf Diesel in 1893

 

5. List the following canals that were built between 1871 and 1915 in chronological order.

Panama Canal      Dortmund-Ems Canal    Danube Canal    Erie Canal   Elbe-Lübeck Canal   Baltic-North Sea Canal                            Berlin-Havelland Canal

Baltic-North Sea Canal (1887-95); Elbe-Lübeck Canal (1895- 1921); Dortmund-Ems Canal (1899); Panama Canal (1914); Erie Canal- new (1908-18); The Danube and Berlin Canals were built in the 1950s

 

6. Prairie Homes consisted of 1-2 story homes made of geometric shapes resembling circles and triangles.  True or False? Who invented the Prairie Homes (Hint: he was part of the Chicago School of Architecture).

False, rectangular and cube-shaped architecture were the features of the Prairie Homes invented by Frank Lloyd Wright.

 

7. Thomas Edison invented the light bulb in 1878, yet Berlin received its first set of electrical lighting in this year?

Berlin received its first electrical lighting in 1884

 

8.  Which of the following bridge engineers did NOT immigrate to the US?

Seth Hewett, Lawrence Johnson, Gustav Lindenthal, John Roebling, Friedrich Voss, Wendel Bollmann

Seth Hewett and the rest of the Hewett family were born in Minnesota. William Hewett originated from Maine.

 

9. The Minneapolis School of Bridge Builders emerged in the 1890s and later became a counterpart to the American Bridge Company conglomerate after the consolidation of _____ bridge builders in 1901. This School featured which family of bridge builders?

Hewett, Johnson, Bayne, Jones                      The Hewett Clan,  Alexander Bayne, Commodore Jones and Lawrence Johnson made up the Minneapolis School of Bridge Building, where over a dozen bridge building firms were located in Minneapolis, Minnesota

Hewett, Fink, King, Bayne

Voss, King, Jones, Humboldt

Hewett, Maillard, Lindenthal, Steinmann

 

10. The Rendsburg High Bridge was the first bridge in the world that used the loop trestly approach. True or False? If false, when and where was the first loop trestle approach used? (See video here)

 False. The Hastings Spiral Bridge in Hastings, Minnesota, built in 1895 by the Wisconsin Bridge and Iron Works Company was the first structure that introduced the pigtail approach, located on the Hastings side. The bridge was replaced by Big Blue in 1951, which in turn was dismantled after Big Red opened last year.  

 

It is hoped that an extended version of the Guessing Quiz would be available for use in the classroom. That plan is still in the works and will be made available through an external source in the near future. Once it’s finished and posted, you will be informed here in the Files as well as in the Chronicles. Stay tuned.

  and

Newsflyer: 11 June, 2014

Unknown photographer. Used in connection with article found here: http://www.erh.noaa.gov/er/lwx/lightning/va-lightning.htm Public Domain

Giant Storm Causes Widespread Damage throughout Germany.  World Cup in Brazil in Full Gear.  Hamburg SV Handball Team Finished?

Getting off the train this morning at Erfurt Central Station in central Thuringia, passengers received a shock of their lives, as the sounds of thunder and lightning made the state capital sound like warfare going on. Pick any war in the last 20 years and it was reenacted by mother nature. And this in addition to heavy rains that flooded streets and brought the vehicular infrastructure to a complete standstill for a time.  But this was the overture to the series of storms that occurred over the course of two days, ending today, which is comparable to Hurricane Kyrill in February 2007, and caused severe damage throughout all of Germany. More on that and a pair of sports-related items in the Files’ Newsflyer.

Video of the Storm

Kyrillian-sized storm cripples Germany:

Local Flooding in Cologne, Rostock and Berlin. Downed trees in the Ruhr River area, northern Hesse and Saxony-Anhalt. Train services suspended. Power outages everywhere. This was a familiar sign when Kyrill brought all of Germany to a complete standstill in 2007. Yet with the storm system sweeping through Germany yesterday and today, it brought back memories of the event. Sweltering heat gave way to golfball-sized hail, high winds and torrential downpour that caused critical damage to many cities throughout Germany. Fallen trees and flooding caused several raillines to suspend services, including the hardest hit area, the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, where the German railways suspended all services statewide yesterday for the fourth time since 2007. Officials there are predicting services to return to normal by the weekend. Stations in Essen, Dusseldorf and Cologne were cut off from the rest of the rail network. Raillines between Berlin, Hamburg and places to the north and west were either closed down or rerouted. Over 100,000 travelers were stranded or had to find alternatives, which didn’t fare better with motorways being blocked due to downed trees and other objects.  Damage is estimated to be more than $135 million. News sources are predicting a clean-up effort taking up to more than a week to complete; this includes restoring the infrastructure affected by the storm. More information and photos can be found here.

Hamburger SV Handball Team to Fold?

Once deemed as the one of the powerhouses of German handball, especially after winning the Champions League Title last year, the handball team from Hamburg’s days as a Premere League team may be numbered. Faced with a 2.7 million Euro deficit (ca. $4.4 million), no president since the resignation of Andreas Rudolph in May and with that, the team’s main sponsor withdrawing its financial support, the team was denied entrance to the first and second leagues. Its last attempt to save face and be allowed to play next season in the Premere League is to overturn the decision by the German Handball League through the arbitration panel. The decision should take place on Wednesday. Should the panel uphold the decision or Hamburg withdraw its appeal, the team will be forced to play in the Regional League (3rd League) in the next season. In addition, the team will not be allowed to participate in the European Cup in the next season, despite finishing fourth in the standings. Melsungen would replace the spot left vacant. And lastly, the team will most likely file for bankruptcy, which could lead to the club being liquidated, should no one step in with money to help them. Such a free fall would be catastrophic, as Hamburg has competed well against the likes of the 2014 Season and German Cup champions, THW Kiel, as well as Berlin, Rhine-Neckar Lions, and the 2014 Champions League winners, SG Flensburg-Handewitt. More information can be found here.

World Cup begins tomorrow

Germany and the US are two of 32 teams that will go head-to head with the competitors beginning tomorrow. The 2014 FIFA World Cup will take place in Brazil at 12 several locations, with the Championship to take place on July 13th in Rio de Janeiro. For the first time since 1930, all the teams winning a World Cup will participate in the competition (Argentina, England, France, Italy, Spain, Uruguay, and Germany).  Spain is the returning champion, having edged the Netherlands in the 2010 Cup. This is the fifth time the Cup is taking place in South America, which has been won by teams from that continent the last four times. That means Brazil is the heavy favorites to take the Cup. More interesting is the pool play, in particular, Group G, where the US and Germany are in. They are scheduled to meet on 26 June in Recife. The stakes are high for the head coaches of both teams, who are both looking for their first World Cup title. Jurgen Klinnsmann is being criticized for the American team being Europeanized, which could be his downfall if his team does not make it. Joachim Loewe is hoping that winning the title will improve his chances of a contract extension before 2016. With both teams hobbling with players banged up from regular season competition, it will be interesting to see how the match will turn out, let alone, who will go far in the Cup. More on the Cup to come in the Files. If you want to know more about the tournament, click here for details.

Guessing Quiz: Industrial History and Infrastructure

Rendsburg High Bridge in Rendsburg, Germany. Spanning the Baltic-North Sea Canal. Photo taken in April 2011

This is a joint article with the Bridgehunter’s Chronicles in connection with the article on Pocket Guide to Industrial History and Infrastructure between 1871 and 1914. For more information on this teaching experience, please click here for details. The Guessing Quiz is in connection with the article.

 

To close off the topic on Industrialization and Infrastructure in Germany and the USA, I decided to provide you with the Files’ Fact-Finder Guessing Quiz Questions for you to research and find answers. The answers will come after May Day in the Files.

 

1.  In the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, structures made of iron melted like lava, which contributed to the destruction of hundreds of buildings made of iron and wood.  True or False?

2. The Chicago School of Architecture was developed shortly after the Great Fire featuring which architects? Name three and how they contributed to architecture.

3. Who created the first automobile in the world: Ransom Olds, Carl Benz or Henry Ford?

4. The Diesel Motor was created in ______ and is named after this German inventor?

5. List the following canals that were built between 1871 and 1915 in chronological order.

Panama Canal      Dortmund-Ems Canal    Danube Canal    Erie Canal   Elbe-Lübeck Canal   Baltic-North Sea Canal                            Berlin-Havelland Canal

 

6. Prairie Homes consisted of 1-2 story homes made of geometric shapes resembling circles and triangles.  True or False? Who invented the Prairie Homes (Hint: he was part of the Chicago School of Architecture).

 

7. Thomas Edison invented the light bulb in 1878, yet Berlin received its first set of electrical lighting in this year?

 

8.  Which of the following bridge engineers did NOT immigrate to the US?

Seth Hewett, Lawrence Johnson, Gustav Lindenthal, John Roebling, Friedrich Voss, Wendel Bollmann

 

9. The Minneapolis School of Bridge Builders emerged in the 1890s and later became a counterpart to the American Bridge Company conglomerate after the consolidation of _____ bridge builders in 1901. This School featured which family of bridge builders?

Hewett, Johnson, Bayne, Jones

Hewett, Fink, King, Bayne

Voss, King, Jones, Humboldt

Hewett, Maillard, Lindenthal, Steinmann

 

10. The Rendsburg High Bridge was the first bridge in the world that used the loop trestly approach. True or False? If false, when and where was the first loop trestle approach used? (See video here)

 

Happy Guessing! :-)

 

 

In School in Germany: Immigration

Here’s a question for all teachers in the German school system and social studies/ history  teachers in the American schools:  How much do you teach your pupils about the history of immigrants- in particular, German immigrants?  How do you approach this topic in terms of teaching method, focusing on a time period in history as well as garnering interest in the topic? And lastly, how much information do/can you provide to your group?

As you recalled a couple articles ago, I presented you with some questions about this particular topic for you to answer, to challenge yourself and learn a couple new items that you have never heard about before.  But this article is about German immigration in general and how important it is that this topic is integrated into the learning curriculum.

Many years ago, I visited Ellis Island, during my 1.5 week stay in New York City, to learn more about this topic and how Germans represented one of the majorities of the population that moved to the new world. Part of this had to do with the fact that my mother’s family is primarily German, originating from Schleswig-Holstein (and in particular, Stein near Kiel, according to genealogy research). Also important was the fact that prior to my trip, I had discovered,  in my parents’ garage, a trunk and on it, the maiden name of my mom’s ancestors that had immigrated to the United States in 1898 and eventually settled down on a farm south of Ellsworth, at  the Minnesota-Iowa border. This sparked my interest in knowing more about how Germans immigrated to the US, the reasons behind their strive towards something new and how they survived over there (and are still prospering today).

Ellis Island. Both photos taken by boat in 1997

The immigration wave of the Germans started in the 1840s before the Great Revolution of 1848. At that time, much of Europe, which featured the Habsburgs (The Austro-Hungarian Empire), Prussia, Russia and France had their own set of oligarchs who favored the church and the powerful over the common people. With violent clashes over food and poverty, plus the strive to put an end to this type of rule in favor of democracy, many of the immigrants boarded ships bound for the States and after several stops along the way, settled down in regions in today’s Rust Belt (the former steel regions extending from Illinois to Pennsylvania), as well as parts of the Midwest, including Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa and North Dakota. Much of their traditions, including their food, such as the hamburger and sauerkraut, the German language and its usage in literature and books, and even the villages were named after those from Prussia and Habsburg. Over 400 villages and towns were created with German city names, like Frankfort, Hamburg, Hannover, Berlin, and the like. Even some of the smaller towns in Germany had their names incorporated in the US, such as Flensburg, Schleswig, Lubeck, Kiel, Weimar, Jena and Trier. There was even the city of Bismarck, the capital of North Dakota that was named after Otto von Bismarck, the founding father of Germany, which was established in 1871. German culture prospered until World War I when President Wilson declared war on Germany in 1917 after a telegram was intercepted promising Mexico portions of Texas, Arizona, New Mexico and California if it entered World War I against the US.  For a period of three years, German culture was suppressed in a way that all traditions and even the usage of the language was prohibited.  Literary works by Schiller and Goethe were banned. The hamburger was renamed Liberty Steak; the sauerkraut, Liberty Cabbage. The Germans were perceived as evil in the eyes of many other immigrants, including the Italians, Irishmen and Russians, and conflicts broke out as a result.

After the war was over and the Versailles Treaty was signed, immigration to the US was limited because of the Red Scare- the Communist movement that had plagued Europe and parts of the US since the Bolshevist Revolution of 1917. Germans tried to escape the misery their country was facing, first through the hyperinflation during the Weimar Republic and later with the rise of Adolph Hitler but were faced with limitations both internally as well as externally. It would not be until after the second World War when the gates were reopened wide and many who wanted to leave and had the resources did.

Today, traces of German culture can be found in the US through foreign languages in public schools, the foods which have become somewhat commercialized, like the beer and hamburger, and the communities that still bear the German names. Some festivals can still be found in those communities, like the Oktoberfest in New Ulm in Minnesota.  Yet do we talk much about immigration in the schools?  Sadly, I have to say no.

Why?

We seem to have drifted away from topics like this one because of the strive to streamline education at the expense of the most important ones, like history, culture and politics. Foreign languages have also taken a hit, as schools in the United States are focusing solely on Spanish while leaving the rest behind- something that is angering the neighbors to the north, Canada, where French is the official second language behind English. While business and technology are two important elements needed to get a well-paying job, other aspects, like the ones mentioned, are just as important for they provide students with an insight to other countries and their culture and history.  Looking at it from a historian’s point of view, taking these humanity aspects seriously can enable the student to learn about him/herself and the surroundings and identify him/herself based on their own family history and how it contributed to the history of their countries.
Yet even when we discuss about humanities, like history and culture, in schools, we seem to have left out the meat of the topics for discussion. Reason for that are the limitations with regards to the subjects to be taught for certain grades- both in Germany, as well as in the USA. The time constraints regarding how and when to teach these subjects have forced many teachers to prioritize which subjects are important and which ones should be left out. Unfortunately, those that are left out are usually not taught unless in academia, if at all.

Immigration is one of those aspects that should be brought to the table at an early stage. There are many reasons for this argument, but I will mention only two, as they are the most important in my opinion. The first is immigration is like a bridge, connecting one’s old home with their new home. People who immigrated to other countries collected many impressions and stories to share with their relatives and friends back home. Many of these impressions and stories deal with comparisons between their new home and their old one, as well as suggestions as to how to improve their old region. While some of the immigrants returned to their old homelands, some remained in their new homelands forever, creating families of their own.  In the case of German immigration, it is typical to find many German families settling in clusters in either a community or region. An example of which can be found in an article written in 2010 about New Trier in Minnesota, which you can click here.

The second argument behind teaching immigration in school is because it played a key role in the development of the countries the immigrants originated from and the countries where they eventually settled down.  In the case of Germany, the emigration of Germans from Prussia and Habsburg resulted in the need to reform the countries respectively, unfortunately through the usage of violence, as was seen in the Revolution of 1848. Eventually the situation stabilized with the creation of a German state in 1871, which provided the solidarity and sound structure of a democratic state many people had envisioned two decades before but were realized by Bismarck.  In the case of German immigrants in the US, their  previous experiences before immigrating over, combined with their innovation and thinking has helped shape the US as it is today.  It is not hard to find Germans in America, who had made a difference, whether it was Henry Kissinger’s role as Secretary of State under Nixon and how the US scaled back on its mission of containment and opened their doors to relations with Russia and China, or John Roebling and his design of the wire suspension bridge, a few examples of which still exist today. Kissinger originated from Fürth (north of Nuremberg) in Bavaria, while Roebling emigrated to Pennsylvania from Mühlhausen in Thuringia and established the town of Saxonburg.

How the topic should be taught in the classroom is fully up to the teacher, but some of the small aspects mentioned here will help students know about the importance of immigration, even more so when it is discussed in the classroom in schools in Europe, and in this case, Germany.  This is where the article ends with a small anecdote: Ignore the smallest details and you will ignore the most relevant. Give them something small to think about and it will make a big difference as far as learning is concerned.

And now, some interesting Flensburg Files’ Fast Facts, which you will find in the next article…..

Christmas Market Tour 2013: Berlin Potsdamer Platz

Left to right: Daimler, Kohlhoff and Deutsche Bahn/ Sony Center Towers. Christmas market in the foreground. Photos taken in December 2013

Our final stop on the Christmas market tour in Berlin- Mitte is Potsdamer Platz. Located one kilometer west of Brandenburg Gate, this square is one of the most highly developed areas in Mitte, most of which being constructed in the former West Berlin.  This is the spot where several hotels were located. It was also the busiest intersection in the city prior to World War II, as roads coming from Potsdam Mitte, and other points met here. This is one of the reasons why the first traffic light in Europe was built in 1924. A replica of the light, which functions as a clock, still occupies this point to this day.  After World War II, the area was completely in ruins, only to be cut in half by the Berlin Wall, when it was built in 1961. For 28 years, Potsdamer Platz was known as “No Man’s Land,” because of the Wall, as it was over 2 km wide, and the land was barren, filled with traps, patrolmen and watch towers.  Despite it being one of the death traps, Potsdamer Platz was one of the first places to be breached, when the Berlin Wall fell on 9 November, 1989, and the gates were open, allowing many East Germans to flee to the western part of Berlin and Germany.

Construction started in 1991 to reshape the square, which included the construction of buildings that housed Daimler Corporation, German Railways and Kohlhoff, as well as the Sony Center- where the German version of the Academy Awards for Films takes place annually- and the Arkade Shopping center, which features multiple stories of shops including those underground. It proceeded at a snail’s pace not only because of the competition among designers and builders on how to reshape the square, but also the stagnation of the German economy as a result of the costs involving Reunification. Germany was in a recession for two years (1993-4), which hampered Helmut Kohl’s chances of reelection as German chancellor in 1994. He won the elections anyway for a fourth term but lost out on his fifth chance to Gerhard Schröder in 1998. When visiting Potsdamer Platz in 2000, it was still a construction zone, with much left to do.

Fast forward to the present: there are no traces left of the Berlin Wall, let alone the cranes and diggers that had dominated the scene for 15 years until 2006. Instead, we have three skyscrapers, an Entertainment Quarter which includes Sony Center, many modernized residential areas with stretches of greenery to the east. Since 2006, Potsdamer Platz has served as a regional hub for rail, subway and light rail traffic, the first being part of the North-South Axis connecting Berlin’s Hauptbahnhof with points to the south, including Südkreuz Station. In fact, when walking up the stairs from the underground stations, one will see the three skyscrapers, with the Christmas market in front of them.

Interconnected with the Christmas market at Sony Center, the main theme of the Christmas market at Potsdamer Platz is: Lights! Camera! Action!  With hundreds of thousands of lights shining in the complex, the best time to visit the market is at night, where the complex and the Sony Center is lit up, creating the oohs and aahs among those who love taking night photography while beating the crowd. One can enjoy the specialties from Austria, in particular Salzburg at the huts located in front of the Kohlhoff Tower.  Mininature skiing and ice skating are also found next to one of the Salzburger huts for children wanting to have fun in the night light. Yet most of these activities can be found in the evening for it is the best time.

One of the huts serving Salzburger Delikatesse

As far as visiting the market in daylight is concerned, not much activity is seen, for only a handful of huts serving drinks and food are open, whereas others are closed until 5pm in the evening. While it may serve as a temporary stop for business people to eat and drink something for lunch, it is an inconvenience for those wanting to beat the rush of the crowd that most likely will visit the market from 6pm on, making the visit to the market among the crowd of people difficult. Alone the market itself is the place that is open the longest, hosting the festival of lights from the end of November until right before the Day of Epiphany (January 6th)- a good strategy for businesses wanting to profit from the passers-by. Yet the customer is king, and perhaps a combination of a pair of measures could max out the profits:

1. Opening the market beginning at 3:30 or 4:00pm would provide people beating the rush with a chance to tour the lights and enjoy the specialties before the normal crowd comes around. This is during the time the sun sets and presents the photographer with a chance to photograph the lights at sundown.

2. Utilize the green space for expansion. While the green area is most likely occupied by people in the summer months as they can enjoy the breeze and the sunlight, it is also useful during the time of the Christmas market where huts could utilize the space and move the crowd away from the traffic that passes through the hub. Sometimes sacrificing the space for a month for a purpose like the Christmas market can save lives as people don’t have to worry about cars speeding past. Cooperation from residents and businesses would be key in embarking on this idea.

Overview of the Market at Potsdamer Platz in daylight. Almost desolate in the daytime, yet at night…..

Overall, while the market is a quick stop for lunch for businessmen and tourists, the Christmas Market at Potsdam is clearly a night market, for the main attraction are the lights, which bring photographers and tourists together at night. Yet one has to find the best time to see it without having to fight the crowd. Therefore, come to the place early to take advantage of what it has to offer. :-)

Photos of the Christmas market can be found here and here. Information about the history of Potsdamer Platz can be found here. Information about the Salzburger specialty foods can be found here.

 

FAST FACT POP QUIZ:

 

1. We wanted to know from you how many Christmas markets Berlin has. Without further ado: here is the answer:

109

There is a total of 109 Christmas markets in the greater Berlin area. Of which 5 are in Potsdam and 20 are located in Mitte, including the ones mentioned in the Christmas market series. If we continue with the tour of Berlin’s other Christmas market, it would take 5-8 years to visit and profile 10-15 of them. A tall order and one can only recommend the ones that are popular among people of all ages. ;-)

 

2. In connection with the Christmas Market at Alexanderplatz, have a look at the picture again on the right-hand side. Any guesses what that is?

Look at the object on the right hand side of the picture and try and answer the question.

 

Here’s the answer:

The Urania World Clock

The clock was developed by Erich John  in 1969 and was part of the plan to redesign Alexanderplatz, which included the construction of the TV Tower. The clock features all 24 time zones and operates dependent on the rotation of the Earth around the sun. The aluminum clock is 2 meters tall and can be seen from the light rail tracks. More information on the clock can be found here.

 

 

Christmas Market Tour 2013: Berlin City Hall

 Across the tracks from Alexanderplatz is another Christmas market with unique attractions. The Christmas market at Rote Rathaus (EN: Red City Hall) is located in the vicinity of several key attractions. It is located directly southwest of the famous TV-Tower. Once used as a spy weapon to keep track of East Germans trying to flee to West Berlin, the 1969 structure, dubbed as the tallest in Germany, is now one of the key attractions for people to see, as one can see the entire city and its suburbs for kilometers on end.  To the west of the tower is The Church of St. Mary’s, a typical German catholic church with a lot of charm. Directly west of the TV-Tower is the Fountain of Neptune, named after the Roman god of fresh water and the seas. At this spot one can ice skate around the statue during the winter months and of course the time of the Christmas market. In the spring and summer months, the fountain is in use, with its high spraying water making it attractive for tourists waiting to go up the Tower.  And lastly, to the east is the famous City Hall. Built in 1869 by Hermann Waessermann, the building was created in the form of high Italian Renaissance architecture, featuring a clock tower similar to Big Ben in London. With the exception of the Cold War period between 1950 and 1991, this popular attraction has housed the City Senate since its opening.

Church of St. Mary’s and the Fountain of Neptune

As for the market itself, despite its location in the sea of high-rise apartments along Unter den Linden, it has a feeling of small town and hominess, as the market is divided up into two parts: the smaller part which features a facade of old buildings from a small community and is enclaved  by a sea of dark mahogany huts. They all have one thing in common: they sell a variety of local and international goods, including alpaca woolen boots made of llama fur, fabrics from Peru and even merchandise in connection with the German cartoon series The Mole.  Plus there are homemade candles and ceramic ware to choose from. Even wooden products made of Ore Mountain wood can be seen at the huts as well as in the Pyramid Candle located next to the ice skating rink. In any case, locality can be found here and presents a person with a break from all the commercial items one can find at a primary Christmas market, like the one at Alexanderplatz, for example.

But apart from the huts, there are many displays that are made of wood, but resemble construction in an era where there were no saw mills. Many of these are located near the Ferris Wheel and feature a pair of mangers- one for the horses and one for displaying Baby Jesus- as well as a tent where horseback riding can be found. One can say the artwork resemble that of the time of Jesus’ birth, but that may be stretching it. Yet the Ferris Wheel, painted in a combination of blue and white is the glaring eyesore in that particular corner. Yes, one can see the entire market and all of the City Hall and the TV-Tower, yet the claim that it is the largest wheel in Germany is disputable. There is one a Janowitzbrücke that may be even larger, as well as others at the markets in other parts of Berlin that might eclipse it. When even comparing the two from the TV Tower, one can see that the one at Janowitzbrücke is bigger. But given the fact that the Ferris Wheel came from Bavaria (most likely Munich), it would not be surprising if the marketers learned a lesson on how to deceive the customer from former Prime Minister Edmund Stoiber, who stressed the importance of marriage before sex and women being the home-maker when he was involved in many scandals himself, which eventually forced him out of office in 2009.  The right to brag about the largest wheel in Germany is a classic example of the lessons learned by the likes of Stoiber, which the Bavarians still maintain a loyal devotion of his party, the Christian Socialists (CSU) today, but the counterparts in the rest of Germany have long since figured out.

Pyramid Candle made of Ore Mountain wood and the mahogany huts in the background.

But enough of the bragging and the criticism, for it was a sunny day during the visit, what time is great but to teach my five-year old daughter how to ice skate. The fortunate part of this market is despite being open later than other Christmas markets in Mitte (11:00am to be exact in comparison to 8:00am at Alexanderplatz), the market had ice skating rentals, which featured a push-penguin figure weighing over 20 kilos. A heavyweight indeed, but it served as an incentive to push the penguin on the rink and learn to skate. It worked like a charm for after awhile, the penguin was relieved and she was on her way by herself. A pair of big steps on a rink that is sparsely populated right now, but will be crowded with people in the evening. It sums up how homey the market is, when there are a few people around in the day time, taking their time in finding the best gift, drinking a hot drink, such as Apple Punch with Rum, eating fried potato chips and watching your kids grow up on the rink to become the next Kati Witt. Apart from the one at Opernpalais, this one is my highly recommended place to visit during the Christmas season. :-)

FAST FACT: The Mole is known as Krtek the little mole, which was the work of a Czech cartoonist Zdenek Miller. Created in 1957, it was common in the former East Germany until 1990 and later in Germany. The US is planning on introducing it in the toy and book market in the near future. More info can be found here.

More photos on the Christmas market at Red City Hall can be found here.

 

Christmas Market Tour 2013: Berlin- Janowitzbrücke

Not far from the heavily visited Christmas market at Alexanderplatz is the Entertainment market at Janowitzbrücke. Located on the north side of the tracks, some 300 meters away, this Christmas market provides all the fun for children who may be bored from visiting hut after hut looking for the right gift, or would rather warm up to some action instead of drinking non-alcoholic Glühwein. The market resembles an amusement park that is somewhat crammed when looking at it from a bird’s eye perspective- in this case, from the TV-Tower at Alexanderplatz. Yet looks can be deceiving and and one can bet that it is much bigger when there in person. From an author’s point of view, it is comparable to an amusement park in Iowa, located a few miles south from where I grew up in southwestern Minnesota, namely Arnold’s Park Amusement Park. Like the oldest historic landmark west of the Mississippi River, this park features a Ferris Wheel that is one of the largest in Mitte, a roller coaster that is taller than the one in Iowa, but definitely smaller, bumper cars, several carousels, and other rides to provide the kids with the ooohs and ahhs, the screams and jubilations, as well as the wildness and excitement that is worth remembering.

While located near residential areas with its typical GDR high-rise appearance, the market here is logistically located along the corridor that connects Alexanderplatz and the train station Ostbahnhof- one of five long-distance train stations serving Berlin. There, people can shop at various small shops and market huts along one side of the track, and do the rides on the other side, without having to travel by light rail from one end of the center to the other. In fact, even by foot, one can walk from Alexanderplatz to Ostbahnhof and see the sights without using public transport- this is speaking from experience as it took only 20 minutes to do that.  It serves as a bit of relief for the overfilled market at Alexanderplatz and the one at City Hall in a way that each market is designated for certain purposes. For the one at Janowitzbrücke, it was meant for fun and rides. Through this form of segregation, it not only controls the crowd, but it protects businesses profiting from this holiday season from getting trampled by the crowd, especially when some have a little too much to drink.

While we didn’t see the place in version- we were on our way to the Holy Shit! Market at Ostbahnhof, which unfortunately was closed when we got there, a bird’s eye view of the market at Janowitzbrücke provides a great insight at what one could expect when seeing it in person: fun, rides and games. And thanks to our trip up the TV-Tower, it brought back fond memories of the amusement park that I grew up with. In either case, an amusement park between the market that provides everything and the market that provides shopping is what people need to take a break from shopping and drinking, and have some fun in the process. :-)

FAST FACTS:

1. There is the real Janowitzbrücke located 400 meters from the market- a combination of light-rail stop between Alexanderplatz and Ostbahnhof, a dike and dam that is travelled on by the rail lines and a bridge that was built in the 1940s replacing an 1890s through arch bridge that was destroyed in World War II.

2. Apart from Ostbahnhof, the other four long-distance railway stations include Central (Hauptbahnhof), Südkreuz, Gesundbrunnen (in the north of Berlin) and Spandau (in the former West Berlin). Since 2006, Ostbahnhof and Spandau serve East-West Traffic, whereas Südkreuz and Gesundbrunnen serve North-South Traffic. Hauptbahnhof , located at Europaplatz west of the German parliamentary complex, is the central meeting point.

3. The Holy Shit! Market, located at Ostbahnhof, featured extravagant shopping deals giving the shopper an incentive to buy a lot and pay less. Because of the competition from the markets and stores at Alexanderplatz, this is held for one weekend only.

4. The Arnold’s Park Amusement Park is located on the southern end of West Lake Okoboji. It was originally built in 1889 and was renovated in 1988. Apart from the Ferris Wheel, it features the Classic Roller Coaster, built in 1927 and is one of 13 wooden roller coasters left in the country.

Christmas Market Tour 2013: Berlin- Gendarmemarkt

Located two blocks south of Unter den Linden at the square surrounded by Französische Strasse, Mohrenstrasse, Charlottenstrasse and Markgrafenstrasse, the Gendarmenmarkt is one of the most popular of market squares in Berlin-Mitte, and a symbol of the German-French Friendship. It features a concert hall, built in 1821 and which houses the Berlin Symphony Orchestra, and is flanked by two different cathedrals on each side. On the right features the French Cathedral, built in 1705 and now houses the Huguenot Museum. On the left, the German cathedral, built five years later and now houses the Museum of German History. At the center of the market stands a statue of one of the greatest German poets of all time, Friedrich Schiller. The place is where music comes to life and given its proximity in the French Quarter, one will see signs of a French-German relationship which has withstood the test of time and remains strong to this day.

This is why the market, named after the French regiment Gen d’Armes which was stationed at this site until 1773, is a really popular attraction for people passing through. And when Christmas time comes around, the market becomes an attractive beacon, luring people into the site filled with rows of white canopy tents topped with a yellow star each. When you pay one Euro to enter the market, one will have a taste of French delicatessen in the form of apple chips, cheese products and other French entrées, as well as other international dishes from regions in Europe, while being awed by some classical music and dancing by several local artists and groups. Most of these concerts take place in front of the steps leading to the Concert Hall and people can stop by and stay as long as they please. And this is in addition to the concerts that are held inside the building itself, which makes it an even more attractive destination for music lovers.  Yet at night, it is even more attractive as the Concert Hall and the two Cathedrals are lit up with various arrays of colors, which makes it a very attractive site for photography, especially for those who happen to stop by at this spot after spending time at the Opernpalais, which is 300 meters away.

The idea of charging for entry to the market is a rather smart choice. One has to look at the fact that the Gendarmenmarkt is one of the smallest of the Christmas markets in Berlin. taking up only two thirds of the space that is offered at the square in general. Leaving it open for people to enter and go as they please would have resulted in the tents being trampled and the people selling goods being overwhelmed. So in a way, a fee would not only stem the flow of people visiting the market, but provide more income for the market and its vendors. Yet a substantial portion of the money raked in from sales and fees goes to charity, as the organizers are engaged in projects benefiting the poor and disadvantaged living in Berlin. With a 10% unemployment rate and half of them being homeless, Berlin is in the top three of all the states and city-states in Germany, competing with Mecklenburg-Pommerania and the city-state of Bremen. Yet they are going out of their way to make sure everyone gets a chance to learn and develop, especially the children of those affected by poverty. Some examples of how the market is helping these children can be found here.  Given the problems Germany still has with poverty, problems with the education system and the inflexibility of the job market in hiring people, such measures can go a long way to ensuring that people can succeed.  But if that is not sufficient enough, one can look at the advantages of charging fees to enter a Christmas market as a way of controlling the crowd of people entering. especially at night, when things can get out of hand because of too much alcohol consumption. Can you think of a Christmas market that has this scheme or should have one, and if so, why?

I would like to end this entry with a bang! That’s right, the Gendarmenmarkt will end its 11th annual run with a concert and fireworks on New Year’s Eve with a celebration at the market place. Up until 1am in the New Year, people can celebrate, watch fireworks and sing along as the market comes to a close. A fitting way to end it for this rather small but very popular market, that is until next year, when it opens again in November.

More about the Christmas market here can be found via photos (here) and facts (here and here)

2013 Christmas Market Tour: Berlin- Opernpalais at Unter den Linden

Overview of the market with the cathedral in the background.

Sometimes, an accidental find can be one that is a jewel’s worth. The Christmas market at Opernpalais, located at Berlin’s Werder Market along Unter den Linden, west of the TV-Tower is one of those jewels that was discovered by accident as we were trying to find the one at Potsdamer Platz but decided to return to the one at Alexanderplatz. Like the silver and gold ornaments that you find on a Christmas tree, the market at Opernpalais is as colorful but in different ways. The huts are built together, lining  along the aisles and decorated with golden yellow lights.  A canopy is covered in Christmas lights and cover a third of the huts located next to the Church, as seen in the picture above. Yet given its proximate location, in the vicinity of many Baroque and Victorian buildings (many of which were restored to their original form), one is due for a treat, as many of them are lit in different colors, some of which are covered with the famous yellow-colored Christmas stars. Coming from Alexanderplatz along Unter den Linden, one will find this display as impressive, a grand overture to what the market looks like on the inside.

Yet one needs to navigate around the construction area in order to get to the market itself, for the only way in and out is through a side street running parallel to Unter den Linden. This has to do with the construction of buildings and a subway U5 connecting Alexanderplatz and Potsdamer Platz. But once entering the market, one is greeted with jazz music provided by local artists, whose origins are not that of Germany. During the visit, we were greeted by a jazz duo from the USA, who sang Christmas songs and remade songs from the 1960s and 70s- a treat to the (not so) popular music we listen to on the radio nowadays. But the atmosphere is very relaxed, where people listen to the music over some mulled wine and grog, while watching the children dance about in front of the stage, providing some support to the duo and entertainment to the parents who love to see them become artists in the future.

Yet when combing along two long rows of huts of the Christmas market, one will find mainly homemade arts and crafts items from many places around the world. Where exactly? There are some from places in South America, Russia and Africa, like one of the stands in the picture below:

Here we find a stand where many handmade goods are from Africa, made of natural materials and glass. If one wants a circle of friends candle, a bracelet or even an instrument that is unique for the region, this is the place. This includes the two-sided mini-drum on a stick, where one has to turn quickly back and forth with both hands together. The salesperson demonstrated this unique instrument during our visit at the stand, prompting my daughter to buy one for her small music collection. But this is only one of many hand-crafted items that a person can see while at the market. There are stools and other furniture with artwork, hand-made ornaments that one cannot see at other Christmas markets in Germany, and even clothing using fur of llamas, such as slippers in a shape of a pair of boots. If one wants something very unique, then perhaps an hour or so at this area will do. And even if one is finished with all the shopping, just being there for the food and entertainment is enough as is, although one should take some time to see the architecture along the way.

This leads us to the climax and last point of our visit to the Opernpalais: For those who don’t believe in Santa Claus, he really does exist! He flew over the market at around 7:00pm during the jazz concert, just as we were returning to our hotel at Alexanderplatz. Providing a bit of spark and two pairs of reindeer, he was on his way to the next market we will get to, wishing everyone a Merry Christmas. It was just unusual that he had to fly in reverse as he left the scene. Given the proximity of the market to the nearby church, as well as some hi-rise buildings nearby, it would not be surprising that he had his reindeer pull the sleigh along the street. If that’s the case, with no snow on the ground, let’s hope his elves have a couple extra pairs of blades ready, just in case the sleigh breaks down before delivering the gifts on Christmas Eve. ;-)

More on the Christmas market at Opernpalais and photos can be found via Flensburg Files on facebook by clicking here!

2013 Christmas Market Tour: Berlin- Alexanderplatz

Alexanderplatz Station, the entrance point of the Christmas Market Photos taken in December 2013

Berlin, the City that Never Sleeps. This is the one sentence that can be described about Germany’s capital. With 3.5 million inhabitants, the city is diverse in culture and history. It is full of people from different backgrounds meeting together at various bars and eateries that remain open through the night. One should not exclude various discotheks where people go dancing, and bookstores where you can buy books in the most exotic languages.  And even though it used to be divided by the Infamous Wall from 1961 to 1989, the city is considered home by many people who are either connected with the city or have moved here from all over the world, including many from the US.  So it is no wonder that Berlin’s diversity can not only be found while walking its streets (like the famous Unter den Linden), but also in the Christmas markets the city has to offer.

There are dozens of Christmas markets in and around the city, but the Files decided to focus on the main ones in the city centre Mitte, for each one, centrally located, have a different theme that makes it appealing to tourists wanting to spend time in the capital. The first stop on the Christmas Market Tour through Berlin is Alexanderplatz.

Alexanderplatz is located in the former eastern part of Berlin which was the capital of the German Democratic Republic from 1949 until German Reunification in 1990 (Berlin later became the capital of a reunified Germany when the government voted unanimously to relocate from Bonn, then the former capital of West Germany).  Alexanderplatz features a train station serving city and regional train services, two market squares straddling the tracks- one to the east at in the shopping district and the other near City Hall- and the TV-Tower, built in 1969 with a purpose to track down East Germans trying to flee to the West through the Wall. It is now the tourist attraction where people can see all of Berlin and places 30 kilometers beyond the border.

The Christmas market we’re looking at is the shopping area side of Alexanderplatz, where it is the most populous of the Christmas markets in Mitte.  How populous? In one sentence: If the market, which is 300 square meters in size is filled to a point where traffic is shoulder-to-shoulder at 5:30pm in the evening, then you do not want to know how crowded it is two to four hours later. In other words, visit this one at midday unless you are there alone at night for the colorful  lights that stream along the small huts, the Lichterbogen (Christmas arc) and the Christmas Pyramide, touted as the largest in Mitte with four floors containing different themes.

Lichterbogen (Christmas light arc)

The shopping area part of Alexanderplatz’s Christmas market is open to the public and features a wide-array of everything a person could ask for that is common for many Christmas markets in Germany. This ranges from gifts to eateries, to even beverages. Most of them are regional- meaning from Berlin and regions in the states of Brandenburg and Saxony. However you can find some exceptions, like the snowballs biscuits from Rothenburg ob der Taube in Bavaria or the famous Thuringian bratwurst (although there is the Berlin variant there.)  It is the midway point between the amusement park portion of the Christmas market located only 400 meters south of Alexanderplatz and the more cultural and homemade variant of the market on the other side of the tracks west of the station.

Yet not everything is as plain and ordinary as mentioned. Apart from the huts and other architecture being lit in various colors, they present different colors and designs that make it appealing. North of the streetcar tracks that go through the train station, most of the huts are made with typical German trusses you find on houses: white background with dark colored trusses that stick out. On the opposite end, most of the huts have a dark brown color, presenting its natural form. This is where the arc and pyramid are located. The double-decker carousel also conforms to the color code. And since the Pyramide features a shop where drinks are available, one can sit in front of the bonfire, sip on some mulled wine and enjoy the architecture that is featured at the market. And this after spending some time shopping in the Galleria Kaufhof shopping complex or even ice skating at the rink.

The market at Alexanderplatz is the largest and busiest of the Christmas markets, which explains the logic behind opening earlier than other markets (at 8:00am) and extending their season to New Year. The Christmas markets are a gathering point for family and friends, as well as a tourist attraction if you want to visit and write about them. Yet if one is encouraged to visit early in the morning and come around after Christmas to enjoy the shops as well as the food and drink, it can be a blessing and a curse at the same time. A curse because if you want to visit the place at night, you will most likely not have a chance because of the crowd. A blessing because you have a chance to see it during the times when it is not as busy. Both because you might earn that extra Euro in drinks, food and goods, but it will cost you your last nerve, especially right before Christmas, when you have very little time to do your last-minute shopping for gifts for your loved ones.

So here’s a word of advice when tackling the largest Christmas market in Mitte: stop there early and beat the rush before going to the other markets. Speaking of other markets, let’s move on to the next one, shall we?

 

POP QUIZ:

As we’re on the topic of Christmas Markets, here are a couple questions for you to answer:

1. How many Christmas markets can be found in Berlin and all of its metropolitan areas (Potsdam included)?

a. 30     b. 50      c. 70       d. 90      e. 100     f. more than 120

 

2. Of this number, which ones are open until (and through) New Year?

 

3. Look at the picture below and to the right side. What is that and who was the mastermind behind this architectural wonder? Note: This one is one of the popular places to see while at Alexanderplatz, year round.

Look at the object on the right hand side of the picture and try and answer the question.

 

The answers will come after the article about the last Christmas market documented in Berlin (could take a while to complete, by the way).

You can also view the photos of the Christmas markets in Berlin via Flensburg Files’ facebook page, which you can access here. Note that there are more pictures to come that will be posted in this album.  Please note that you can like the Files to get more coverage on the Christmas markets and other themes on German-American relations presented in this column.

 

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